A Physicist Explains: A Review


Directions of scattered materials

IMAGE: Direction of scattered materials from Hiroshima. It reached cities and towns far from the hypocenter

Above: http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/cgi-bin/museum.cgi?no=2005c&l=e

IMAGE: Hypocenter of Hiroshima. This map shows how far the energy from the blast reached out from the hypocenter.

Above: http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/cgi-bin/museum.cgi?no=2005c&l=e

Human remains found on rooftop of Deutsche Bank 130 Liberty Street (Bankers Trust Building)

IMAGE: Deutsche Bank 130 Liberty Street (Bankers Trust Building). Human remains were found on the rooftop.Evidence of a blast from the WTC towers that expelled debris sideways for some distance. Height of Deutsche Bank building: 565 feet. Height of Twin Towers: 1368 ft, 1362 ft.


IMAGE: The red arrow points to the Deutsche Bank Building

Above: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deutsche_Bank_Building

IMAGE: Googlemap: Here we can see the rooftops of the buildings around the WTC. The Deutsche Bank Building is the squarish shape just to the bottom left of the center of the screen.

Galvanized tin roofing

IMAGE: 330m from the hypocenter (Fukuro-machi)

This piece of galvanized tin roofing fell on the roof of Hiroshima Fukoku Building in Fukuro-machi.

Above: http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/cgi-bin/museum.cgi?no=2010a&l=e

Melted lunch box and ivory pipe

IMAGE: Donated by Tsuneyo Okahara
300m from the hypocenter (Tenjin-machi)

Masataro Okahara (then, 49) was exposed to the A-bomb in his office. His wife Tsuneyo immediately tried to get into the city to find him but was stopped by the ferocious flames. On the 9th, she began searching all the relief stations in the city. One week after the bombing, she dug into the ruins of Masataro’s workplace where his desk had been and found bones in the position of a person sitting in a chair. The lunch box and pipe lay at the end of the outstretched right arm. Stunned by this confirmation of her husband’s death, Tsuneyo sank to the ground.


COMMENT: This is similar to what was left behind of the people killed in the WTC buildings. Nearly all the human remains that the investigators and rescuers managed to gather from the rubble were small pieces of bone fragments such as a tooth or finger bone, and small-sized scraps of human tissue.

Ten-yen bill (Paper and Powder theory)

IMAGE: Ten-yen bill. Collected from where it fell in Jigozen Village, Saeki County (now, Hatsukaichi City), 14km west of the hypocenter.

Above: http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/cgi-bin/museum.cgi?no=2006a&l=e

COMMENT: These small bits of paper found in the aftermath of the Hiroshima atomic bombing are similar to the debris left behind in the 9/11 WTC disaster: paper pieces fluttered about in the dust-covered streets like a paper snow-storm. Note the distance this piece of yen note traveled from the hypocenter (14 km).

Another ten-yen bill

IMAGE: Collected from where it fell in Tomo Village, Asa County (now Hiroshima City Asaminami Ward), 8.5km from the hypocenter.

Above: http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/cgi-bin/museum.cgi?no=2007b&l=e

IMAGE: Paper and powder in the street. Note how the paper is largely intact but the ruins of the towers are mostly powder. Refer to the “paper and powder theory” of nuclear explosions.

Above: http://newyorkermen.multiply.com/journal/item/151

Enough energy to snap 30-ton beams and toss them aside:

IMAGE: Pieces of steel recovered from the World Trade Center site are preserved in Hangar 17 of Kennedy International Airport. Three are about 1,350 pieces of steel, many weighing over 30 tons. Apparently these were sheared off from the side of the building and snapped in the middle.

ABOVE: http://www.amny.com/entertainment/news/am-wtcrelics-pg2006,0,6613706.photogallery?index=3


Wooden sandal (Geta)

IMAGE: Wooden sandal. Donated by Tomiko Inoue 500m from the hypocenter Zaimoku-cho (now Nakajima-cho)

Miyoko (then, 13) was a first-year student at First Municipal Girls High School. She was exposed to the bomb at her building demolition work site at Zaimoku-cho. Her body was never found, but her mother found this wooden sandal three months later. She recognized it by the straps she had made herself using material from her kimono.

ABOVE: http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/cgi-bin/museum.cgi?no=0007&l=e

There were eyewitness reports of people simply vaporizing when the towers disintegrated and fell.

“Dr. Charles Hirsch, the chief medical examiner, triggered an angry response two weeks ago when he told grieving relatives that many bodies – no one is sure how many – had been “vaporized” and were beyond identification.

Hirsch declined to be interviewed. But spokeswoman Ellen Borakove said he meant that bodies were consumed by blazing fuel from the two crashed airliners, or “rendered into dust” when the 1,100-foot skyscrapers collapsed, one concrete slab floor onto another.”

ABOVE: http://letsrollforums.com/wtc-victims-may-have-t22985.html

Patricia Ondrovic (recovery detail) – Lack of objects found in rubble

KT: What were your duties when you had to go back?

PO: We all took turns doing morgue detail, standby for anyone who got hurt going through the rubble. I did morgue detail a few times.

KT: Is this what is referred to as “bag & tag”?

PO: Yes, when you have to log any body parts, or personal effects in morgue work. It was important to try to document any remains we found.

KT: Now despite this being probably the most chaotic incident you had to work at, did you find any strange things when you’re recovering evidence there?

PO: Well, I remember cataloging findings in the morgue log — a tooth, an arm and such. Never catalogued watches, wallets or jewelry.

KT: You never found any jewelry on any of the victim’s parts?

PO: I didn’t, no. But I do recall at some point either in Brooklyn or Staten Island they had a facility where debris was trucked to and the contents sifted by hand for any evidence. That was some time after 9/11, maybe a few weeks after they started that.

KT: Did you find any personal belongings on the ground or buried under any debris?

PO: I didn’t.

KT: What about things like office furniture, computers, and pictures — things that would be in a normal office building?

PO: Everything was this sort of grey/black debris. I personally never saw anything definable like a chair, desk, or phone, but I never went into what was the base of the building itself, there could have been there. I remember everything being layered in grey soot and ashes everywhere and just debris. One thing I remember distinctly was on a corner adjacent to the towers a bike messenger’s bicycle still chained to the lamppost covered in soot.

KT: Have you ever worked a recover detail where you didn’t find any recognizable personal belongings or objects like interior furniture, say from the aftermath of a fire?

PO: I never worked a recovery detail before that. It wasn’t customary for EMS to work recovery. From time to time we would have to transport a body to the morgue after an investigation was completed if the deceased was in public view. I worked in midtown. In the 12 years I was with EMS, I never responded to anything like that.

KT: A year after the attacks, a victim’s family received an ATM card that belonged to their son who was supposedly on Flight 11 that crashed into the North Tower and was supposedly found in relative pristine condition by rescue crews at Ground Zero. Did you ever come across anything even remotely close to someone’s personal item like this in any condition?

PO: I never came across any personal effects. The things I did find were charred, burnt, rubble covered in soot. I guess that’s the needle in the haystack [the ATM card].

KT: So is it fair to say that you think something like this plastic ATM could not only not survive at Ground Zero, but not survive so well intact?

PO: I’d say it was a miracle.


Only the buttons remain – paucity of recovered objects a phenomenon of aerosolization

IMAGE: Hiroka Nishimoto (then, 12)  Porcelain buttons
Near Dobashi, Koami-cho, 900 m from the hypocenter. Donated by Oyuki Nishimoto.
Hiroka Nishimoto (then, 12) was a first-year student at Hiroshima Municipal Junior High School when he was exposed at his building demolition worksite. His mother, Oyuki, walked the city day after day searching for Hiroka. She never found his body, but she found these buttons from the clothing he was wearing that day. The buttons were the only part of his clothing that remained.

Above: http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/exhibit_e/exh0407_e/exh04075_e.html

Videos of people interviewed for History Channel documentary “Relics from the Rubble”

Look how this steel is bent!

VIDEO: Bent steel columns in 9/11 Dailymotion | Vid.me

The only filing cabinet found

VIDEO: The only filing cabinet found DailymotionYoutube | Vid.me

“Haven’t seen a doorknob …”

VIDEO: Haven’t seen a doorknob DailymotionYoutube | Vid.me  Photobucket video

Bent like a horseshoe

VIDEO: Bent like a horseshoe DailymotionYoutube video | Vid.me | Photobucket video

Bent and twisted steel debris

Bent and twisted steel debris DailymotionVid.me

Videos above are taken from the video below:

Full 9/11 video from History Channel: “Relics from the Rubble” (2002)

VIDEO: Relics From The Rubble ( 2002) ArchiveOrgYoutube | Vidme Part 1 | Vidme Part 2


BELOW from: America’s Reaction to the Atomic Bomb

“Any object within a two kilometer distance from the hypocenter suffered significant burn damage, and those located near the hypocenter were instantaneously vaporized. The Shima hospital, the hypocenter of the atomic bomb was vaporized, along with all her patients.” [Hiroshima]


Energy calculation

1 kt yield weapon releases energy that is equal to 4.19 x 10^12 joules:

Unit Equivalent to
1 kt 10^12 calories
4.19×10^12 joules
4.19×10^19 ergs
2.62×10^31 eV
2.62×10^25 MeV
fission of 0.241 moles of material (1.45×10^23 nuclei)
fission of approx. 57 g of material
1.16×10^6 kilowatt-hrs
3.97×10^9 BTU

ABOVE: http://www.nuclearweaponarchive.org/Nwfaq/Nfaq12.html

Instant vaporization at the hypocenter

FROM: “America’s Reaction to the Atomic Bomb” [URL]

Any object within a two kilometer distance from the hypocenter suffered significant burn damage, and those located near the hypocenter were instantaneously vaporized. The Shima hospital, the hypocenter of the atomic bomb was vaporized, along with all her patients.” [Hiroshima]


Yukiharu did not realize at first that a bomb had exploded. He thought there had been an electrical accident at the plant building he was working in. Then it suddenly became dark and “I heard a huge explosion. The roof of the building had collapsed, and we were under the broken roof. I felt a pain in my head. I managed to escape from the building. I did not know what was happening to us, because we had not experienced any serious bombing. . . . I was not badly hurt. . . . A piece of broken glass was sticking into my head.” [Nagasaki] From: http://users.dickinson.edu/~history/product/steele/seniorthesis.htm

Height of pile and amount of debris

ABOVE: http://www.pbs.org/americarebuilds/engineering/engineering_damage_03.html



Above: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/dirt2.html#nanodust

Sample collection of WTC area

Ground sampling consisted of collecting debris from 35 locations in the WTC area, including 33 dust, 2 concrete, and 2 steel beam insulation samples.

Optical photographs of a typical dust sample on the left (sample WTC01-27) and what appeared to be an insulation coating from a steel beam on the right (WTC01-8). The coating contains as much as 20% chrysotile asbestos. Scale bar is 10 millimeters.

Above: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/index.html

iron-rich sphere and slag wool2.jpg

IMAGE: “Iron-rich spherules were also observed in studies conducted by the RJ Lee company [1] and the US Geological Survey (USGS) [2]. In particular, a USGS report on the WTC dust provides two micrographs of “iron-rich spheres” [3] and a “bulbous” or tear-drop-shaped silicate droplet [4]”

Above: http://journalof911studies.com/articles/WTCHighTemp.pdf

IMG: http://luogocomune.net/site/modules/911/911/7-Misc/debunk/crono/6fog-o.jpg

FROM: http://www.luogocomune.net/site/modules/911/index.php?filename=911/7-Misc/stampa/focus/focus.html

Img: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3146/2685424736_9cbcf947be.jpg

ABOVE URL: http://urbanglasgow.co.uk/viewtopic.php?t=802&start=0

Img: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3249/2685439234_d4a0e57bb7.jpg

URL: http://urbanglahttp://urbanglasgow.co.uk/viewtopic.php?t=802&start=0sgow.co.uk/viewtopic.php?t=802&start=0

Caption: Demolition of a Glasgow high-rise

IMG: http://www.fpp.co.uk/online/01/11/images/harddayatwork.jpg

FROM: http://www.fpp.co.uk/online/01/11/WTC_DeathRoll2.html

IMG: http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.02110703.g009&representation=PNG_M

CAPTION: Indoor deposition of dust and smoke released by the collapse of the WTC on 11 September 2001.

FROM: http://www.ehponline.org/members/2002/110p703-714lioy/lioy-full.html

Volcanic dust

The dust in the WTC attacks was similar to the dust found in volcanic fallout:

ABOVE: http://www.cgrove417.org/FRY/Science/Volcanoes/Formationof%20volcano.html (dead link)

ABOVE IMG: http://www.media-collections.com/pictures/Ground_Zero_Streets_19.jpg

FROM: http://www.media-collections.com/pictures/index.html

IMG: http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/images/large/151_704.jpg

CAPTION:  “Rescue personnel

The area around the World Trade Center was covered with a thick carpet of dust and debris after the Twin Towers collapsed.”

ABOVE FROM: http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/collection/record.asp?ID=151

Paper and powder theory of nuclear explosions

No bodies, furniture or computers found in the rubble, but intact sheets of paper covered the streets with fine dust. Items with significant mass absorbed fusion energy and were vaporized while paper did not. This supports the “Paper and Powder” theory.


IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/Image175.jpg

CAPTION: (Judy Woods) “Why doesn’t the paper burn?”

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/StarWarsBeam5.html

ABOVE: http://www.media-collections.com/pictures/policecar3.jpg

IMG: http://www.media-collections.com/pictures/policecar6.jpg

CAPTION: Note the mud-spattered car in the background.


IMG: http://www.ussartf.org/images/posterfig12.jpg

FROM: http://www.ussartf.org/volcanoes.htm

IMG: http://www.hybrideb.com/source/eyewitness/nyartlab/DSC07995.jpg

CAPTION: “Notice the car covered in dust-mud. FDR Drive. Front half of a car burned with a shiny, unburned rear end.”

FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/StarWarsBeam5.html

CAPTION: (Judy Woods)  “Notice the two dust-covered cars under the bridge. How did the dust fall there? Obviously there were strong enough air currents to put it there. It’s interesting how the drying pavement looks like it does after its been treated for snow and ice. (This is thought to be the entrance ramp to the Brooklyn Bridge from southbound FDR Drive.)”

ABOVE IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/21.jpg

IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/010900_lg-map-aerial1red.jpg

CAPTION: (Judy Woods) “Map of lower Manhattan shows the WTC and FDR Drive a half mile or more apart. Aerial view of lower Manhattan.”

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/StarWarsBeam5.html

IMG: http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/trade.center/damage.maps/ne.all.jpg (IMAGE 4)

IMG: (Legend) http://i.cnn.net/cnn/SPECIALS/2001/trade.center/damage.maps/legend.gif

ABOVE FROM: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/trade.center/damage.map.html

IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/Image35swamp.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/moretoastedcars.html

GJS-WTC105_toasted (1).jpg

IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/dirtpics/GJS-WTC105_toasted.jpg

COMMENT: A thick layer of dust descended on this parking lot that was some distance away from the WTC site.

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/dirt2.html

IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/GJS-WTC101_toasted.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/StarWarsBeam5.html

IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/Toasted_lot_wtc1.gif

CAPTION: The cloud from the destruction of WTC1 rolls toward the parking lot.

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/StarWarsBeam5.html

IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/18wtc099sl7.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/StarWarsBeam5.html

IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/GJS-WTC106.jpg

ABOVE  FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/StarWarsBeam5.html

IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/GJS-WTC109.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/StarWarsBeam5.html

IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/19wtc108rj0.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/StarWarsBeam5.html

IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/toasted_lot_merc.jpg

CAPTION: (Judy Wood) “The rust is noticeable.”

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/StarWarsBeam5.html

IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/Image21swamp.jpg

CAPTION: Paper on street. This is a look east down Park Place.


IMAGE: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/Image77map.gif

CAPTION: Dust and ash and paper debris was scattered as far as this point (see map of the street in the photo above – red dot and arrow shows location of the paper-filled street).

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/moretoastedcars.html

IMG: http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/trade.center/damage.maps/sw.all.jpg

CAPTION: The beige colored area shows how far the dust has spread. These are the buildings that needed to be cleaned.

ABOVE FROM: http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/trade.center/damage.map.html


IMG: http://www.engr.psu.edu/ae/WTC/lidar_092201.jpg

CAPTION: The low height of the rubble pile indicates how much of the towers had been turned into fine dust by the explosions.

ABOVE: http://wtc7lies.googlepages.com/groundzerocleanup,freshkillssortingopera

and  also:

IMG: http://cache2.asset-cache.net/xc/1164183.jpg?v=1&c=IWSAsset&k=2&d=77BFBA49EF878921F7C3FC3F69D929FD4552ADB801249585DEDB13CFA664317011CD0B023276045AE30A760B0D811297

FROM: http://www.life.com/image/1164183

IMG: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Imgs/Jpg/MSH/Images/MSH80_volcanic_ash_collected_near_randle_1980s_med.jpg

CAPTION: Volcanic ash collected in Randle, Washington, located about 40 kilometers north-northeast of Mount St. Helens. The north edge of the May 18, 1980, eruption cloud passed over Randle and deposited between 1 and 2 centimeters of ash on the community.
USGS Photograph taken by David Wieprecht.

ABOVE FROM: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/MSH/Images/MSH80/framework.html

IMG: http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.02110703.g002&representation=PNG_M

CAPTION: The general appearance of the bulk dust collected at the Market Street location east of the WTC site. Dust samples from the other two sites were similar in appearance. Magnification = 4×.

ABOVE FROM: http://www.ehponline.org/members/2002/110p703-714lioy/lioy-full.html

and FROM: http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/slideshow.action?uri=info:doi/10.1289/ehp.02110703&imageURI=info:doi/10.1289/ehp.02110703.g002

http://www.indianspringscalistoga.com/?page=story_ash_water (moved link)

Paper and powder theory of nuclear explosions

IMG: http://www.media-collections.com/pictures/Ground_Zero_Streets_17.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://www.media-collections.com/pictures/index.html

IMG: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Imgs/Jpg/MSH/Images/MSH80_may18_ash_connell_washington_06-80_med.jpg

CAPTION: May 18, 1980 ash, Connell, Washington. USGS Photograph taken in June 1980 by Lyn Topinka.

ABOVE FROM: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/MSH/Images/MSH80/framework.html

ABOVE: Hakone, Japan http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/14_15erup.html (dead link)

ABOVE: Hakone, Japan http://hakone.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/vrc/erup/14_15erup.html (dead link)

IMAGE: Pinatubo http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/Imgs/Jpg/Pinatubo/16112441-008_large.jpg

CAPTION: Pumice and ash cover cars and airport runways (Mount Pinatubo, 1991)

ABOVE FROM: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hazards/tephra/index.php

IMAGE: http://www.tribuneindia.com/2000/20000820/1908a.gif

CAPTION: A couple removes volcanic ash off their car on Saturday as residents of Miyakejima island, 190 km south of Tokyo, began returning home after they were forced to seek shelter on Friday from volcanic eruption of Mount Oyama on the island, spewing ash as high as 8,000 meters into the air.

ABOVE FROM: http://www.tribuneindia.com/2000/20000820/world.htm

Steel core of the North Tower aspirating

ABOVE: GIF of part of the steel core of one of the WTC towers aspirating into a spray of dust. Water tank in the foreground. The core is in the distant background. (GIF was made by Beta from the following jpgs)

ABOVE: Water tank in the foreground.  Part of the steel core of WTC 1 is in the background.

IMG 1: http://drjudywood.com/articles/why/whypics/47_spire.jpg

IMG 2: http://drjudywood.com/articles/why/whypics/48_spire.jpg

IMG 3: http://drjudywood.com/articles/why/whypics/49_spire.jpg

IMG 4: http://drjudywood.com/articles/why/whypics/50_spire.jpg

IMG 5: http://drjudywood.com/articles/why/whypics/51_spire.jpg

Adapted from: http://drjudywood.com/articles/why/why_indeed.html

Steel core of the North Tower aspirating

VIDEO: North Tower steel core ablating into dust Dailymotion

You can see the steel core of the North Tower aspirating. This video also shows the nuclear glow. Notice the sudden brightening of the screen 5 seconds into the video as the North Tower explodes. (“North Tower steel core ablating into dust”)

IMAGE: http://home.comcast.net/~jeffrey.king2/wsb/media/56016/site1074.jpg

CAPTION: “An odd remnant of the core of the north tower remained standing for about 15 seconds after the main collapse, then seemed to abruptly disintegrate into a narrow column of dust where huge steel box columns had been…”

ABOVE: http://home.comcast.net/~jeffrey.king2/wsb/The_Strange_Collapse_of_the_Spire.htm

IMAGE: http://home.comcast.net/~jeffrey.king2/spire_dust-3.jpg

CAPTION: “The jagged triangular spire of steel columns seen above is a portion of the service core that remained standing after the main body of the dust cloud from the north tower collapse had reached the ground. It can be seen in several still pictures and in at least one video, and appears to be about 2/3 the height of the building, say 60-70 floors, narrowing down to just a single column at the top. This grouping of columns is only a portion of the core, most likely one corner and the area around it, perhaps as much as a third of the core’s area at the bottom.”

ABOVE: http://home.comcast.net/~jeffrey.king2/wsb/The_Strange_Collapse_of_the_Spire.htm

IMAGE: http://home.comcast.net/~jeffrey.king2/wsb/media/56016/site1099.jpg (resized)

CAPTION: “This construction picture gives a sense of how massive the core really was.”

ABOVE: http://home.comcast.net/~jeffrey.king2/wsb/The_Strange_Collapse_of_the_Spire.htm

Img: http://www.truememes.com/911_physics_files/image005.jpg

ABOVE URL: http://www.toequest.com/forum/general-physics/4546-twin-towers-mechanical-physics-3.html

IMAGE: http://cdn.newsday.com/polopoly_fs/1.88995.1252610960!/image/1290122730.jpg_gen/derivatives/display_600/1290122730.jpg

Caption: The base of the transmission tower from one of the WTC buildings.

ABOVE URL: http://www.newsday.com/long-island/photos-wtc-relics-1.211196#3

IMAGE: http://www.omogenia.com/forum/gallery/1/med_1237407900-towerntop.jpg

CAPTION: Tower One. You can see the transmission tower base.

ABOVE URL: http://www.omogenia.com/forum/showtopic.php?tid/53838/post/new/

http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hangar/7195/index7.html (dead link)

IMAGE:  http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/dirtpics/GJS-WTC105_toasted.jpg

CAPTION: Car lot.

ABOVE: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/dirt2.html

URL: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Imgs/Jpg/MSH/Images/MSH80_volcanic_ash_with_helicopter_08-22-80_med.jpg

CAPTION: “For weeks volcanic ash covered the landscape around the volcano and for several hundred miles downwind to the east. Noticeable ash fell in eleven states. The total volume of ash (before its compaction by rainfall) was approximately 0.26 cubic mile (1.01 cubic kilometers), or, enough ash to cover a football field to a depth of 150 miles (240 kilometers). In this photograph, a helicopter stirs up ash while trying to land in the devastated area. USGS Photograph taken on August 22, 1980, by Lyn Topinka.”

ABOVE: http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/MSH/Publications/MSHPPF/MSH_past_present_future.html

IMAGE URL: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/dewpics/21.jpg

CAPTION: (Judy Wood) “Notice the two dust-covered cars under the bridge. How did the dust fall there? Obviously there were strong enough air currents to put it there. It’s interesting how the drying pavement looks like it does after its been treated for snow and ice. (This is thought to be the entrance ramp to the Brooklyn Bridge from southbound FDR Drive.)”

ABOVE: http://drjudywood.com/articles/DEW/StarWarsBeam5.html

IMAGE URL: http://www.movinghere.org.uk/gallery/hardship/images/dust.jpg

CAPTION: “Volcanic dust. A street in Georgetown, on the Caribbean island of St Vincent, in 1902. The photograph shows the devastation caused by the violent eruption of the volcano Soufriere when 1600 people were killed. The street lies thick in volcanic dust and almost every window pane visible in the picture is shattered.”

ABOVE URL: http://www.movinghere.org.uk/gallery/hardship/dust.htm

IMAGE: http://msnbcmedia2.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/060424/060424_911Dust_vmed_2p.grid-4×2.jpg

CAPTION: “Marcy Borders was caught outside as one of the World Trade Center towers collapsed and a cloud of smoke and dust enveloped the area. Officials are concerned about the possible longterm health effects of the dust. (Stan Honda / AFP file)”

ABOVE URL: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12466875/

IMAGE: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/64/203925956_558f36f8f5.jpg

ABOVE URL: http://floormasters.com/flooring-pros/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=2725&start=15

IMAGE: http://www15.ocn.ne.jp/~oyakodon/newversion/pic11/WTC05.jpg

ABOVE URL: http://www15.ocn.ne.jp/~oyakodon/newversion/hb1.htm


IMAGE: http://www.911review.com/articles/jm/mslp_1_files/dust.jpg

ABOVE URL: http://www.911review.com/articles/jm/mslp_1.htm


IMAGE: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/911/images/01813r.jpg

CAPTION: Don Halasy, [Man covered in ashes assisting and walking with woman holding a particle mask to her face], 2001

ABOVE URL: http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/911/911-docphotos.html

IMAGE: http://www15.ocn.ne.jp/~oyakodon/newversion/pic11/survivor.jpg

ABOVE URL: http://www15.ocn.ne.jp/~oyakodon/newversion/hb1.htm


ABOVE URL: http://www.arsenalofhypocrisy.com/911/9-11_Truth.htm (dead link)

ABOVE URL: http://goldismoney.info/forums/showthread.php?t=89303&page=2&highlight=tower (changed link)

IMAGE: http://www.strummernews.com/911dust.jpg

ABOVE URL: http://shirazsocialist.wordpress.com/2007/04/03/the-horror/

ABOVE FROM: http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/wtc_fire.htm (moved link)

ABOVE URL: http://0.tqn.com/d/cruises/1/7/E/Q/3/pompeii010.JPG

CAPTION: “Pompeii – Horror on Face of Volcano Victim. This picture is a vivid reminder of the horror experienced by the citizens of Pompeii when the hot ash and poison gas from Mt. Vesuvius destroyed the city.”

ABOVE: http://cruises.about.com/od/mediterraneancruises/ig/Pompeii/pompeii010.htm

Did the people of Pompeii flee like these people from the engulfing volcanic lava and ash raining down on them?

IMAGE: http://www.911review.com/articles/jm/mslp_1_files/dustcloud.jpg

ABOVE  URL: http://www.911review.com/articles/jm/mslp_1.htm

ABOVE FROM: http://www.projectrebirth.org/rebuild/urbanPlan/liberty.html (dead link)

ABOVE FROM: http://www.library.cornell.edu/olinuris/ref/911.html (moved or dead link)

URL: http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/collection/supporting.asp?ID=701

IMAGE URL: http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/images/large/151_701.jpg

CAPTION: “Merrill Lynch & Co.. Photo by Christophe Agou.

This Merrill Lynch reception area, located on the lobby level (one story above ground) in the 2 World Financial Center (225 Liberty Street), was covered in dust when the World Trade Center towers collapsed.”

ABOVE FROM: http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/collection/record.asp?ID=151

URL: http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/collection/supporting.asp?ID=124

IMAGE URL: http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/images/large/62_124.jpg

CAPTION: “Photo by John Labriola. Wall Street, transformed by debris from the World Trade Center collapse.”

ABOVE FROM:  http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/collection/record.asp?ID=62

Dust-covered GZ

URL: http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/collection/supporting.asp?ID=702

IMAGE URL: http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/images/large/151_702.jpg

CAPTION: “Photo by Christophe Agou. Firemen. In the first hours after the collapse, rescue workers formed long “bucket brigades” as they attempted to remove debris by hand.”

ABOVE FROM: http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/collection/record.asp?ID=151

IMAGE URL: http://web.knoxnews.com/web/kns/news/breaking/wtc/pics/430.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://web.knoxnews.com/web/kns/news/breaking/wtc/430.html

More dust pictures

Above image: Dust covers an abandoned produce stand in lower Manhattan (Photo: Aris Economopoulos / The Star Ledger) http://img221.imageshack.us/img221/7120/911wtcdustju6.jpg  URL: http://www.commondreams.org/headlines06/0210-05.htm URL#2: http://letsrollforums.com/911-world-trade-center-t16686p20.htmlhttp://letsrollforums.com/911-world-trade-center-t16686p20.html

Above img: http://img440.imageshack.us/img440/1739/911wtcsg2.jpg URL: http://www.flickr.com/photos/45448482@N00/sets/72057594120224434/ URL2: http://letsrollforums.com/911-world-trade-center-t16686p20.html

Above img: http://img78.imageshack.us/img78/9288/911wtccm1.jpg URL1: http://www.flickr.com/photos/45448482@N00/sets/ Double Check, bronze, 1982, J. Seward Johnson. 72057594120224434/ URL@: http://letsrollforums.com/911-world-trade-center-t16686p20.html Caption: Double Check, bronze, 1982, J. Seward Johnson.

Shows dust

IMAGE URL: http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/img/ex0603_img/33panolamaS.jpg

CAPTION: “People entering the city for rescue and relief. Approx. 1,180m from the hypocenter, Yamaguchi-cho (now, Kanayama-cho). This panoramic shot extends from the burnt plain of the city to the west side of Hiroshima Higashi Police Station. People are heading toward the city center along the burnt-out streetcar street to join rescue efforts or search for loved ones.”

ABOVE: http://www.pcf.city.hiroshima.jp/virtual/VirtualMuseum_e/exhibit_e/exh0603_e/exh060307.html


IMAGE URL:  http://wtceo.org/images/world_trade_center_dust_cloud.jpg

ABOVE FROM:  http://wtceo.org/

IMAGE URL:  http://wtceo.org/images/world_trade_center_dust_cloud.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://wtceo.org/

ABOVE FROM: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/Products/Warn/dds39_083_caption.html (moved link)

IMAGE URL: http://www.google.co.kr/images?q=glasgow+demolition&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF-8&source=og&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wi&biw=1259&bih=664

Caption: Demolition of tower blocks in Glasgow

ABOVE FROM: http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?p=20956765

Img: http://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/2719273.jpg

Caption: Mitchellhill Flat Demolition, Castlemilk (Glasgow)

ABOVE FROM: http://www.panoramio.com/photo/2719273

IMAGE URL: http://www.stevensnewsservice.com/images/wtc/1/MVC-004F.JPG

CAPTION: “Stunned Stevens students, faculty, staff and community members watched in horror yesterday as New York’s World Trade Center spewed smoke and flames. Then, after 10 a.m. as a crowd on Castle Point looked and listened, each massive tower collapsed, rumbling to the city floor.

Those watching from the Stevens Institute of Technology campus were safely across the Hudson River, out of range of the debris, dust and smoke rising from the scene. Campus Police secured the grounds.

Eyewitnesses at Stevens first saw the disaster unfolding when the World Trade Center towers were hit by aircraft and smoke began to surround their highest floors about 9 a.m.”

ABOVE IMAGE: http://www.stevensnewsservice.com/images/wtc/2/MVC-004F.JPG

CAPTION: “Shortly after 10 a.m. the south tower collapsed.”

ABOVE FROM: http://www.stevensnewsservice.com/images/wtc/2/MVC-008F.JPG

CAPTION: “Plumes of smoke rose through the buildings on lower Manhattan. Minutes later, the second tower crashed down. Smoke and dust from the collapsing buildings created a massive, tragic spectacle seen throughout the region.”

ABOVE FROM: http://www.stevensnewsservice.com/images/wtc/2/MVC-010F.JPG

ABOVE FROM: http://www.stevensnewsservice.com/images/wtc/2/MVC-014F.JPG

ABOVE FROM: http://www.stevensnewsservice.com/images/wtc/2/MVC-015F.JPG

IMAGE: http://www.stevensnewsservice.com/images/wtc/2/MVC-021F.JPG

ABOVE FROM: http://www.stevensnewsservice.com/pr/pr204.htm

Dust composition

Chemical Analysis – fibers in the aerosol

IMAGE URL: http://pubs.acs.org/cen/images/8142/8142coverstory_powder.JPG

IMAGE URL: http://pubs.acs.org/cen/images/8142/8142coverstory_36fibs.JPG

CAPTION: An analysis of WTC dust (top) revealed many odd-shaped glass fibers that come from slag wool, as shown in this scanning electron microscopy image. USGS PHOTOS

ABOVE URL: http://pubs.acs.org/cen/NCW/8142aerosols.html

IMAGE URL: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/sem1/8lm.70pc.gif

CAPTION: “Optical image of an insulation coating collected from a steel beam removed from the WTC debris pile (sample WTC01-8). This insulation contains up to 20 volume % chrysotile asbestos.”

FROM: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/sample.location.html

IMAGE URL: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/sem1/27lm.70pc.gif

CAPTION: “Optical image of dust and debris collected 0.3 km from ground zero (sample WTC01-27).”

FROM: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/sample.location.html

IMAGE URL: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/sem1/wtc01-36FEOX.gif

CAPTION: “Secondary electron image of an iron oxide particle cluster from sample 36.”

FROM: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/sem1/wtc01-36.html

Analysis of the WTC dust










ABOVE: http://www.ehponline.org/members/2002/110p703-714lioy/lioy-full.html

Leachate analyzed


ABOVE: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/leach1

Chemical analysis of WTC dust and girder coating


ABOVE: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/chem1/index.html

Summary of argument for controlled demolition

Architects & Engineers for 9/11 Truth

As seen in this revealing photo the Twin Towers’ destruction exhibited all the characteristics of destruction by explosions:
1. Extremely rapid onset of “collapse”
2. Sounds of explosions at plane impact zone — a full second prior to collapse (heard by 118 first responders as well as by media reporters)
3. Observations of flashes (seen by numerous professionals)
4. Squibs, or “mistimed” explosions, 40 floors below the “collapsing” building seen in all the videos
5. Mid-air pulverization of all the 90,000 tons of concrete and steel decking, filing cabinets & 1000 people – mostly to dust
6. Massive volume of expanding pyroclastic dust clouds
7. Vertical progression of full building perimeter demolition waves
8. Symmetrical collapse – through the path of greatestno resistance resistance – at free-fall speed — the columns gave
9. 1,400 foot diameter field of equally distributed debris – outside of building footprint
10. Blast waves blew out windows in buildings 400 feet away
11. Lateral ejection of thousands of individual 20 – 50 ton steel beams up to 500 feet
12. Total destruction of the building down to individual structural steel elements – obliterating the steel core structure.
13. Tons of molten Metal found by FDNY under all 3 high-rises
14. FEMA finds rapid oxidation and intergranular melting on structural steel samples
15. More than 1000 Bodies are unaccounted for — 700 tiny bone fragments found on top of nearby buildings
And exhibited none of the characteristics of destruction by fire, i.e.
1. Slow onset with large visible deformations
2. Asymmetrical collapse which follows the path of least resistance (laws of conservation of momentum would cause a falling, intact, from the point of plane impact, to the side most damaged by the fires)
3. Evidence of fire temperatures capable of softening steel
4. High-rise buildings with much larger, hotter, and longer lasting fires have never “collapse

ABOVE: http://www.ae911truth.org/

WTC Dust Analysis Results

Photo 1 (above): Dust covered everything at and around Ground Zero.

WTC Dust Analysis Results
Construction Debris
•Carbonate fragments
•Glass Fibers
•Chemically processed cellulose fibers
Quartz Grains
Combustion Materials
•Includes charred wood fragments
Chrysotile Asbestos Fibers
•Some with adhering carbonate binder, total estimated to comprise <1%
Synthetic Fibers
Cellulose Fibers
•Cotton and paper
Insect Parts

Addendum: And Tar Fragments

ABOVE FROM: http://911research.wtc7.net/cache/wtc/analysis/asse_groundzero1.htm

Evidence of advanced fusion devices at the WTC

1. Pulverization of 99% of concrete into ultra fine dust as recorded by official studies. Concrete dust was created instantly throughout the towers when the fusion device million degree heat rapidly expanded water vapour 1000-fold in the concrete floors.

2. Superheated steels ablating (vaporizing continuously as they fall) as seen in video clips of the towers collapsing. This requires uniform temperatures roughly twice that of thermite. Conventional demolition or explosive charges (thermate, rdx, hdx etc.) cannot transfer heath so rapidly that the steel goes above it’s boiling temperature.

3. 22 ton outer wall steel sections ejected 200 meters into the winter garden. Cutting charges cannot eject heavy steels and throwing charges cannot provide the energy required without heavy, solid surface mounts.


ABOVE: http://www.daleyblog.com/weblog/2006/02/   (dead link)

4. 330 ton section of outer wall columns ripping off side of tower. Cutting charges cannot eject heavy steels linked together and throwing charges cannot provide the energy required without very heavy, solid surfaces to mount those charges.

ABOVE: http://crashrecovery.org/911/5.

Molten ponds of steel at the bottom of elevator shafts (WTC1, WTC2, WTC7). Massive heath loads have been present at the lower parts of these high-rise buildings. As one of the witnesses after seeing the flow of metals declared: “no one will be found alive”.

6. The spire behaviour (stands for 20-30 seconds, evaporates and goes down, steel dust remains in the air where the spire was). The spire did not stand because it lost its durability when the joints vaporized.

7. Sharp spikes in seismograph readings (Richter 2.1 and 2.3) occurred at the beginning of collapse for both towers. Short duration and high power indicate an explosive event.

8. A press weighting 50 tons disappeared from a basement floor of Twin Towers and was never recovered from debris. Not possible with collapses or controlled demolitions. The press was vaporized or melted totally.

Caption: Not the same press as the WTC one

ABOVE FROM: http://cmc.cheme.cmu.edu/cmcprojects.html

9. Bone dust cloud around the WTC. This was found not until spring 2006 from the Deutsche Bank building. (In excess of 700 human remains found on the roof and from air vents). See http://www.911citizenswatch.org/print.php?sid=906

10. Fires took 100 days to extinguish despite continuous spraying of water. Thermate would burn out totally and then cool down much faster, just in a few days. This long cooling time means the total heath load being absorbed into the steels of the WTC was massive, far in excess anything found in collapses or typical controlled demolitions.

11. Brown shades of color in the air due nuclear radiation forming NO2, NO3 and nitric acid. TV and documentary footage changed the color balance to blue to disguise this fact indicating complicity in the coverup

12. Elevated Tritium values measured in the WTC area but not elsewhere in New York. Official studies stated that 8 EXIT signs from two commercial Boeing jets were responsible. The tritium in those EXIT signs is insufficient to explain the measurements (very little tritium is available for measuring after evaporation into air as hydrogen and as tritiated water vapour. This can provide conclusive proof of fusion devices and therefore US/Israeli military involvement.

13. Pyroclastic flow observed in the concrete-based clouds. Only found with volcanic eruptions and nuclear detonations. The explosion squibs cool down just a few milliseconds after the explosion or after having reached some 10 meters in the air. Pyroclastic flow will not mix with other clouds meaning very serious heath in those clouds not possible with the conventional demolition or explosive charges. The pyroclastic clouds were cooling down at the WTC but this process took some 30 seconds. See http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1381525012075538113

14. Huge expanding dust clouds 5 times the volume of the building indicating extreme levels of heat generated far in excess of traditional demolition explosives.

15. Rubble height was some 10% of the original instead of 33% expected in a traditional demolition. Fusion device removal of underground central steel framework allowed upper framework to fall into this empty space and reduce the rubble height.

16. No survivors found, except some firefighters in one corner pocket in the rubble who looked up to see blue sky above them instead of being crushed by collapsing debris. Upward fusion flashlight-like beam of destruction missed this pocket but removed debris above those lucky firemen.

17. 14 rescue dogs and some rescue workers died far too soon afterward to be attributed to asbestos or dust toxins (respiratory problems due to alpha and tritium particles created by fusion are far more toxic)

18. Record concentrations of near-atomic size metal particles found in dust studies due to ablated steel. Only possible with vaporized (boiling) steels.

19. Decontamination procedure used at Ground Zero (hi-pressure water spraying) for all steel removed from site. Water spraying contains fusion radioactivity.

20. No bodies, furniture or computers found in the rubble, but intact sheets of paper covered the streets with fine dust. Items with significant mass absorbed fusion energy (neutrons, x-rays) and were vaporized while paper did not. Paper and powder theory.

Paper and powder theory

http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/collection/record.asp?ID=15121. 200 000 gallon sprinkler water tanks on the roofs of WTC1 and WTC2, but no water in the ruins. Heat of fusion devices vaporized large reservoirs of water.

22. Reports of cars exploding around the WTC and many burned out wrecks could be seen that had not been hit by debris. Fusion energy (heath radiation and the neutrons) caused cars to ignite and burn far from WTC site.

23. Wide area electrical outage, repairs took over 3 months. Fusion devices cause EM pulse with Compton scattering. See German engineers help the USA plate 5. http://home.debitel.net/user/andreas.bunkahle/defaulte.htm

24. EM pulse was recorded by broadcast cameras with high quality electronic circuitry. This occurred at the same time as the seismic peaks recorded by Lamont Doherty during the beginning of the collapse. This is due to the Compton Effect and resulted in a large area power outage at the WTC.

ABOVE FROM: http://www.saunalahti.fi/wtc2001/evidence.htm

“Paper and powder” video from 9/11 Eyewitness

VIDEO: Paper and powder theory Dailymotion


Image from the video: “We see white sheets of paper floating on a cushion of air”


Image from video: “Paper and powder. How could it be possible? It appears that the high strength to weight ratio of paper allowed it to survive the energy blast that vaporized all heavy and denser materials.”

Problems with pancaking/gravity theory

Examples of pancaking


IMAGE URL: http://luogocomune.net/site/modules/911/911/5-WTC/20domande/crolli-o.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://www.luogocomune.net/site/modules/911/index.php?filename=911/7-Misc/stampa/focus/focus.html

IMAGE: http://911research.wtc7.net/talks/wtc/ndocs/taiwan_six.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://911research.wtc7.net/talks/wtc/collapsecases.html


IMAGE: http://www.911truth.dk/first/img/earthquakeCollage.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://www.911truth.dk/first/en/art_Harrit.htm

IMAGE: http://www.geerassociation.org/GEER_Post%20EQ%20Reports/Bhuj_2001/144539.jpg

CAPTION: Bhuj is located 70 km to the West of the earthquake epicenter. A four story building completely pancaked, while its neighbor did not (2/18/01 2:45:39 PM, N23.24663 E69.67426).

ABOVE: http://www.geerassociation.org/GEER_Post%20EQ%20Reports/Bhuj_2001/Bhuj.html

IMG: http://www.post-gazette.com/images3/20051009wp_quake2_450.jpg

IMG: http://news.bbc.co.uk/olmedia/450000/images/_453139_flat300.jpg

CAPTION: Some examples of earthquake-induced building damage:

ABOVE FROM: http://www.wakeupfromyourslumber.com/node/1477

ABOVE FROM: http://www.wakeupfromyourslumber.com/node/1477 (MOVED PIC)

IMAGE: http://whatiscivilengineering.csce.ca/images/earthquakes/earthquake19.jpg

ABOVE IMAGE: http://www.eqecat.com/abscorporatesolutions/images/PML4.jpg

ABOVE IMAGE: http://www.wakeupfromyourslumber.com/node/1477

Squibs, missiles and “puffs of air”

ABOVE FROM: http://www.debunking911.com/overp.htm (dead link)

ABOVE: GIF of squib (from dead link)

Img: http://www.hiloop.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Glasgow-Gorbals-Demolition.jpg

ABOVE URL: http://www.hiloop.com/demolition-what-goes-up-must-come-down.html

Mid-air pulverization

IMAGE: http://www.lescarney.com/Pictures/wtc_9_66.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://www.lescarney.com/wtc_9_11_untold_story.htm

The tower is being pulverized even before it hits the ground.

How do the ‘conspiracy debunkers’ explain the debris being ‘squeezed out’? The debris isn’t just dirt and debris but heavy beams of metal.

Heavy beams flung far from towers

Heavy I-beams that weighed 3,000 pounds were thrown like matchsticks, impaling adjacent buildings, as a result of the force from the blast.

ABOVE IMAGE: Closeup of the huge missile impaled into the building. According to the government, puffs of air did this.

ABOVE FROM: http://911speak.com/WTC/wtc.htm (dead link)

Img: http://www.911research.com/wtc/evidence/photos/docs/gz_hd1391p36.jpg

URL: http://www.911research.com/wtc/evidence/photos/gzrescue2.html

Caption: Trident impaled in the WFC 3 building.

COMMENT: the yellow line between WTC 1 and WFC 3 is 103 meters long.

ABOVE FROM: http://www.lescarney.com/wtc_9_11_untold_story.htm

BELOW: A close-up of the beams, some still held together, and some pieces weighing many tons.

IMG: http://911research.wtc7.net/essays/reynolds/docs/cons_trusses.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://911research.wtc7.net/essays/reynolds/

CAPTION: A closeup of the beams.

IMG: http://nuke.crono911.org/Portals/0/Foto4/24912199.jpg

ABOVE: http://nuke.crono911.org/Crono911Aggiornamenti/FotoVideoMedia/WTC1e2Icollassi/tabid/76/Default.aspx


World Trade Center Twin Tower breaks up before hits the ground

IMG: http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/analysis/collapses/docs/site1085_c.jpg

CAPTION: “This section of a larger photograph of the North Tower’s destruction shows metal objects — steel column sections and aluminum cladding — being propelled away from the Tower.”

ABOVE: http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/analysis/collapses/steel.html

ABOVE: http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/analysis/collapses/steel.html

ABOVE IMG: http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/arch/docs/fig_2_7.jpg



IMG: http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/arch/docs/spandrel.jpg

CAPTION: As the diagram and photograph illustrate, the perimeter wall structures were assembled from pre-fabricated units consisting of 3 column sections and 3 spandrel plate sections welded together.

ABOVE  FROM: http://911research.wtc7.net/wtc/arch/perimeter.html

IMG: http://www.saunalahti.fi/wtc2001/w2.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://johnmccarthy90066.tripod.com/id472.html

IMG: http://www.saunalahti.fi/wtc2001/dusttrail1.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://johnmccarthy90066.tripod.com/id472.html

IMG: http://www.saunalahti.fi/wtc2001/w3.jpg

CAPTION: “Steel pillars are turned into dust. Extremely hot, sublimating pieces are not created with many methods.”

ABOVE URL: http://johnmccarthy90066.tripod.com/id472.html

Problems with pure gravitational “pancaking” theory

Collapse from weakening by fire

How can the buildings have pancake-collapsed due to weakening from fire?

The phenomenon of pure “pancake” collapse is incompatible because a pancake collapse is caused by weakening of the foundation of a building, such as in earthquakes. In contrast, in a fire, which is said by the government to be the cause of the “pancake collapse” in the WTC collapse (and powderization), there is weakening of the weaker structures first, followed by weakening of the core structural components, the strongest part of any building. We would see a sequence of collapse of weaker components (concrete) followed by collapse of the stronger components. We would see a sequence of charring and then collapse from floor to floor as the fire spread. Only the parts that were charred would collapse in a fire. It is hard to believe the official story that the steel cores charred first before the concrete. In the 9/11 fires, there was very little evidence of charring.

Many buildings that are destroyed by fire show an intact skeleton structure that is still standing after the fire has been put out. Often the internal contents and the weaker parts of the structure are consumed by the flames, with the skeleton left intact, giving the fire-affected a “gutted” appearance.

Pancaked buildings


ABOVE: Earthquake in Turkey


ABOVE: Earthquake in Pakistan

Major earthquakes frequently cause pancake-collapse and there are many pictures showing this. In these pictures the upper floors are relatively intact compared to the ground floor and lower level floors, which are reduced to rubble. However, there is no or minimal dustification.

What we should have expected to see in the WTC events if the official explanations were true – charring and flames – were hardly seen, and what we would not have expected to see in the WTC events – atomization/powderization of steel and concrete – was seen in abundance.

Height of debris pile

The height of the debris at Ground Zero is ludicrously small as well. One hundred and ten-storey buildings do not pancake-collapse into a heap this short in height.  But we would see short mounds of debris if the debris comprised mostly of dust. In the 9/11 attacks, explosives blew up the buildings and shattered them into fine particles and debris that was surprisingly small-sized. It was typical for recovery and clean up crew to find debris that was no bigger than a doorknob or a telephone dial pad. Only one intact steel filing cabinet was found.

The contents of the buildings including the people inside them were smashed into pieces; Whole clouds of microscopically-sized particles enveloped Manhattan after the event. The explosion of the weapons used in the attacks vaporized everything in its path (except for paper, much of which was left flying around Manhattan among the dust – refer to the “paper and powder theory” of nuclear explosions), and the only things that resisted vaporization were objects not in the direct path of the nuclear device.

This is the real reason why the piles of debris of the Twin Towers are so surprisingly small. They do not even reach the full height of a tractor in the picture below. In a pancake-collapse of skyscrapers, you would see a tall pile of debris. Around a 100 storeys pancake-collapsed but the structures left behind are not tall mounds of pancaked storeys, as you see in earthquake pictures; they are mounds of dust with twisted metal lying in them.


And the collapse doesn’t even look like a pancaking. The site looks like an explosion site, a common sight seen in war zones.

More reasons why the pancake-gravitational theory is wrong

IMAGE URL: http://www.lescarney.com/Pictures/wtc_9_74.jpg

COMMENT: The bicycle pump theory cannot explain the matter, including heavy steel I-beams, shooting upwards in the air in plume-like formations, against gravity. Only an explosion can produce enough energy to cause this scenario.

ABOVE: http://www.lescarney.com/wtc_9_11_untold_story.htm

Why “fire causing structural damage” theory is wrong

The buildings in these pictures sustained considerable fire damage, as evidenced by the charring seen. However, the two buildings are still standing and mostly structurally intact, save for the windows that were lost in the fire. Compared to this, the WTC Twin Towers, which were designed to withstand damage to its structure better than most other buildings, collapsed into a heap of ash, pulverized concrete, and weirdly twisted and bent steel, after a short time after catching fire on a few (three or four) floors – fire was only visible on several floors in photos taken right before the buildings collapsed.

Below: Location 4 in map of WTC destruction (18 and 19 are Twin Towers)


IMAGE URL: http://www.pbs.org/americarebuilds/images/engineering_img_b_90wst.jpg

CAPTION: “90 West Street. DAVE PERAZA: Aircraft parts were found on the roof of this 24-story building, which sustained structural damage on its north face and burned for days after the attack. Nevertheless, the steel-framed structure, a landmarked building designed by Cass Gilbert with heavy terra cotta floors, survived remarkably well.”

ABOVE: http://www.pbs.org/americarebuilds/engineering/engineering_buildings_04.html

Location 5 in map (18 and 19 are Twin Towers)


IMAGE: http://www.pbs.org/americarebuilds/images/engineering_img_b_130libertyst.jpg

CAPTION: “130 Liberty Street/Bankers Trust. DAVE PERAZA: Facade columns from South Tower raked down the north face of this building, gouging a hole from the 22nd floor down to the 8th floor. Remarkably, the columns above the destroyed area did not collapse.”

ABOVE: http://www.pbs.org/americarebuilds/engineering/engineering_buildings_04.html

Weak fires in the WTC

In the pictures below, we see evidence of a relatively weak fire. The temperature of the fire was not intense enough to burn these people to death. There is mostly smoke seen in the pictures, and very little evidence of flames.

IMAGE URL: http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v449/Diesel2004/Remember%209-11-01/th_WTCwindowpeoplevictimsmed.jpg

ABOVE: http://smg.photobucket.com/albums/v449/Diesel2004/Remember%209-11-01/

AND FROM: http://www.v911t.org/ (moved)

IMAGE: http://photos1.blogger.com/x/blogger/7025/3128/400/637739/911_FallingPlaneParts001_DavidHandschuh-UAflt174-DailyNews-1.jpg

CAPTION: ‘This photo has a history that needs to be told: David Handschuh took this about 1 second after the “impact” or should we say “the explosion”‘

ABOVE: http://www.zimbio.com/World+Trade+Center/articles/2/WTC+impact+photo

COMMENT: Very little evidence of fire in this tower before it mysteriously collapsed. If the fires were so intensive and extensive to burn the core down or significantly weaken the core, we would see more flames, smoke and charring than this. The plane looks like it exploded into a ball of fire before it hit the building in the above picture of a falling plane part.

“Concrete doesn’t burn”

IMAGE: http://www.irishconcrete.ie/uploadedImages/Benefits_of_Concrete/RHS/thumb_Fire%20Front%20Cover%20hand%20over%20flame.jpg

CAPTION: “Concrete does not burn and does not add to the fire load. Concrete has high resistance to fire and stops fire spreading. Concrete is an effective fire shield, providing a safe means of escape for occupants. Concrete does not produce any smoke ot toxic gases, so helps reduce the risk to occupants. Concrete does not drip molten particles, which can spread the fire. Concrete’s robustness in fire facilitates firefighting and reduces the risk of structural collapse.”

ABOVE FROM: http://www.irishconcrete.ie/fire.html

AND FROM: http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~civ5blast/web-poster/methodology.php

AND: http://www.see.ed.ac.uk/~civ5blast/web-poster/fire-effects.php

CAPTION: “Fire Resistance of Concrete. Concrete performs well when exposed to fire as it is incombustible and a good insulator.”

IMAGE URL: http://www.wtc7.net/docs/la_fire_lg_c.jpg

CAPTION: “The 1988 First Interstate Bank Building fire in Los Angeles, which burned out of control for 3-1/2 hours and gutted 4 floors of the 64 floor tower … The Interstate Bank Building fire consumed several floors but did not damage the steel superstructure.”

ABOVE FROM: http://www.wtc7.net/buildingfires.html

COMMENT: The fire above is very similar to the fire that was seen in the skyscrapers WTC 1 and 2. Even though the fires burned in the First Interstate Bank Building for longer than they did in WTC 1 and 2, the building survived largely intact.

IMAGE: http://www.nfpa.org/assets/images/journal/MA05/Fire.gif

CAPTION: “The fire reaches the 47th floor of the Parque Central in Caracas, Venezuela. Sometime before midnight on October 15, 2004, a fire began on the 34th floor of the East Tower of the Parque Central, a 56-story government office building in Caracas, Venezuela, and South America’s tallest high-rise.”

ABOVE FROM: http://www.nfpa.org/categoryList.asp?categoryID=961&URL=Publications/NFPA%20Journal%AE/March%20/%20April%202005/Cover%20Story&cookie%5Ftest=1

COMMENT: Even though the fire affected more storeys than in WTC 1 and 2, the building is still standing. WTC 1 and 2 not only collapsed but also pulverized and the steel was bent into bizarre shapes. In this fire above, you can see clear evidence of charring. As you would expect to see, weaker structures gave way and charred first –glass windows are all shattered in the storeys affected and the inside of the building is charred but the concrete shell is relatively intact.

IMAGE URL: http://www.nfpa.org/assets/images/journal/MA05/damage.gif

ABOVE: http://www.nfpa.org/categoryList.asp?categoryID=961&URL=Publications/NFPA%20Journal%AE/March%20/%20April%202005/Cover%20Story&cookie%5Ftest=1

COMMENT: The contents are burned and charred but the pillars are still intact.

Black smoke indicates oxygen-starved fire

IMG: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/dirtpics/aris15.jpg

CAPTION: The burning World Trade Centers and Statue of Liberty. Photo Copyright Aris Economopoulos / The Star Ledger

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/dirt1.html

COMMENT: The fire was in its terminal stages as can be seen from the picture above. A relatively oxygen-starved fire would not have been able to reach the intensities that would have been required to cause buckling of steel.

In addition, there is very little evidence of fire. Only a few floors near the top of the building were affected by fire. However, despite the lack of evidence that the fire reached the floors in the bottom half of the building, we are told that the fires were melting the cores all the way to the bottom while this photo was being taken.

Only small fires at the WTC

IMAGE: http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/images/medium/108_244.jpg

CAPTION: The World Trade Center towers on fire after the terrorist attacks. Photo by Seymour Levy.

ABOVE FROM: http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/collection/record.asp?ID=108

COMMENT: Flames are seen shooting out from only a few floors in the Twin Towers. This is evidence that the fires were not extensive: they affected only a few floors. The charring is also minimal. The concrete in the fire-affected floors is relatively intact and not affected by charring from the fire, apart from the part where the walls were breached by the planes. Flames would have to be much more extensive, and the charring too, for the steel cores and steel periphery to have been buckled by the fire. If the concrete is little affected by the fire, it’s impossible for the steel in the building to be damaged worse than the concrete. In other words, neither the concrete or the steel in the Towers were badly affected.

IMAGE: http://www.utopiax.org/911/windsor-tower.jpg

CAPTION: “In 2005, the Windsor Tower in Madrid burned for 20 hours, and it was a flaming inferno unlike the WTC fire where it was mainly smoke after the initial fireball ..”

ABOVE FROM: http://www.utopiax.org/wtc.html

COMMENT: In this fire, the flames are much more visible and extensive than in the Twin Tower fires. The fire is engulfing more floors than the WTC buildings. The concrete walls have collapsed and all the windows have shattered. Nevertheless the steel structure is still standing after 20 hours of the building being on fire. Even though the fire appears to be much worse than the one that occurred in the Twin Towers, the damage to the supporting structural components is much less than the Twin Towers.

IMAGE: http://www.utopiax.org/911/windsor-tower-02.jpg

CAPTION: “After the 20-hour-fire, the building was still standing and supported a crane standing on the roof.”

ABOVE FROM: http://www.utopiax.org/wtc.html


IMAGE URL: http://www.utopiax.org/911/1988may04_LA_firstinterstatebank.gif

CAPTION: First Interstate Bank, Los Angeles. May 4, 1988. There was clearly a lot of fire, and a whole story on fire – but it did not collapse.

ABOVE FROM: http://www.utopiax.org/wtc.html

Flameless “fires” in the WTC

Where was the fire that was supposed to have been so massive that it globally weakened the structure of the towers from the bottom story to the ninetieth storey?

Even NIST estimates the initial fires in the towers burned out in a few minutes; their reports say that most office material fires burn out by 20 minutes.

And WTC 7, that was completely destroyed in the attack, collapsing straight down onto its footprint into a heap of rubble and dust, wasn’t even hit by a plane – how does the jet fuel theory apply to WTC 7?

Fires that occurred in the WTC 7 tower only affected a few floors. In pictures (not the doctored ones shown on debunking sites that have smoke clouds with a dead straight vertical edge, you can flames lighting up the windows of only two floors. Even the doctored photos don’t show the presence of an extensive fire. Compare this to the Madrid skyscraper which was a mass of flame, and which still stood after the fire had burned out, its frame still intact. This is what we expect to see after a building fire that has raged uncontrollably: a blackened structure with most of the contents inside the storeys reduced to charcoal. A fire guts – in other words, the internal contents and the weaker structures such as the windows and walls char and collapse first, leaving the structural skeleton standing or collapsing last. In the WTC’s case, the external structures of all of the storeys disintegrated into dust before even passing through the carbonization stage. According to the government, the internal core bent and buckled under the intense heat of fire, while the outside concrete shell and even many windows were little affected or unaffected, and the vast bulk of the peripheral steel was bent into pretzel shapes and horseshoe shapes,  including 3000 lb I-beams in a few seconds during the collapse, under the weight of gravity.

It seems that the WTC 7, WTC 1 and 2 bypassed the stage of catching flames and carbonizing, usually a stage that takes many many hours, in the fire process. WTC 1 and 2 went from being hit by planes to turning into dry fine powder (the concrete and contents of the building) or into piles of twisted and mangled steel, with extensive charring and smoking everywhere. Even though the flames were weak and small in size, apparently they were extensive enough to cause buckling of steel in the cores, all the way down to the base of the building, as well as cause the structural steel in the periphery of most floors to bend into horse-shoe bends, as well as cause the formation of micro-fine iron and other metal particles.

Fire weakens by carbonization. If the material hasn’t been carbonized, it won’t be turned into powder by fire. The government tells us the extensive powderization was caused by gravity. However, the physicist “MMC” explains very thoroughly and proficiently why the government’s account cannot be true, if the presence of dust particles the size of 0.3 micron is to be explained.

Explosives are the only things that “powderize” without carbonizing first.

If fire had spread throughout the seven towers – recall that WTC 3, 4, 5 and 6 were also extensively destroyed in the 9/11 attack – affecting every part of the structures internally and externally, spreading to every floor in the case of WTC 1,2 and 7, affecting almost every joint, and infiltrating almost every beam, slab, wall, window and piece of furniture inside the buildings, eventually causing all the structures, internal and external, to ‘weaken’ to the point that they dissolved into dust, then there was very little sign of this fire. Fires do not occur without producing flames. It would be the first time in the history of the world that fire was so extensive it reached every floor and caused the core steel and peripheal I-beams to buckle and bend (some into pretzel shapes) but there was no visual evidence of the fire, including flames, smoke and charring (carbonization).

More pictures of buildings on fire

IMAGE: http://www.911truth.dk/first/img/windsor2.jpg

CAPTION: “Windsor Tower, Madrid, February 2005. During a well-known tower fire in Madrid (2005), the whole building was engulfed in an inferno of flames for 24 hours. It remained standing.”

ABOVE FROM: http://www.911truth.dk/first/en/art_Harrit.htm

Even though the fire in the Windsor Tower lasted about 24 hours, it was still standing.

IMAGE URL: http://www.911truth.dk/first/img/windsor1.jpg

CAPTION: Windsor Tower, Madrid, February 2005

ABOVE FROM: http://www.911truth.dk/first/en/art_Harrit.htm

COMMENT: Fires affect at least 10 floors. There are large billows of white smoke coming from the fires. The fires raged for 20-24 hours, charring the affected floors extensively. However, the core was little affected and the floors that were not reached by the fires showed no damage to their peripheral structures.

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/dirt1.html

IMAGE URL: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/pics/wtc-32_1_small.jpg

CAPTION: (Judy Wood) WTC2 blowing “smoke rings”.

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/WTC7.html

IMAGE URL: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/pics/wtc-34_1_small.jpg

CAPTION: (Judy Wood) WTC2 blowing smoke rings.

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/WTC7.html

IMAGE: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/pics/wtc-39_1_small.jpg

CAPTION: (Judy Wood) WTC2 blowing smoke rings.

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/WTC7.html

IMAGE URL: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/pics/wtc-40_1_small.jpg

CAPTION: (Judy Wood) WTC 2 blowing smoke rings.

ABOVE FROM: http://drjudywood.com/articles/dirt/WTC7.html

COMMENT: There is very little evidence of the South Tower pancaking as it collapses in this picture. However, there are many signs of pulverization of parts of the building and contents before these parts reach the ground. There are also plumes of powdered material billowing upwards from the building.

IMAGE URL: http://whatreallyhappened.com/IMAGES/woman_wtc.jpg

ABOVE FROM: http://whatreallyhappened.com/WRHARTICLES/wtc1_woman.html

Fire in One Meridian Plaza


IMAGE: http://www.911oz.com//image_db/image_repository/rec_82/x_image_1.jpg

CAPTION: The fire at One Meridian Plaza in Philadelphia in 1991.

ABOVE URL: http://www.911oz.com/links/dummies/2?PHPSESSID=810f18a46d4764ec02dd551123fc76ee

IMAGE URL: http://www.911oz.com//image_db/image_repository/rec_83/x_image_1.jpg

CAPTION: (From site) The fire at One Meridian Plaza in Philadelphia in 1991 (pictured above) burned for 19 hours and was more intense than the WTC fires, yet it did not fall down, much less crumble into powder, as did the WTC buildings.

ABOVE: http://www.911oz.com/links/dummies/2PHPSESSID=810f18a46d4764ec02dd551123fc76ee

Plane crashes into apartment building but doesn’t collapse and crumble

IMAGE URL: http://drjudywood.com/articles/why/whypics/67_IranPlaneDebris_wing.jpg

CAPTION: A C-130, about half the weight of a Boeing 767, hit this 10-story apartment building at approximately the 8th floor in Tehran last December and crumpled outside, throwing debris around and spilling burning jet fuel over the impact wall and inside the building.

ABOVE: http://drjudywood.com/articles/why/why_indeed.html

IMAGE URL: http://www.payvand.com/news/05/dec/plane-crash-Tehran1.jpg

CAPTION: The plane with 94 people on board crashed in the township of Tohid in Tehran on Tuesday. The crash occurred at 14:10 local time (10:40 GMT) [2005]. The area is close to Tehran’s Mehrabad International Airport, which handles domestic, international and military flights.

FROM: http://payvand.com/news/05/dec/1045.html

IMAGE URL: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200512/07/images/24321369.jpg

CAPTION: Fire fighters are conducting rescue work by the crashed building in Tehran, Dec. 6, 2005.

FROM: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200512/07/eng20051207_226248.html

IMAGE URL: http://www.iranfocus.com/uploads/img439538fec42ed.jpg

CAPTION: All 94 passengers on board an Iranian military transport plane which crashed south of Tehran Tuesday afternoon have died, according to state radio which also said that at least 25 people on the ground were also killed.

FROM: http://www.iranfocus.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=4747

IMAGE: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200512/07/images/401111.jpg

CAPTION: A video grab shows smoke rising from a building in Tehran following a plane crash, Dec. 6, 2005. (Xinhua photo)

ABOVE: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200512/07/eng20051207_226248.html

IMAGE URL: http://www.iranfocus.com/uploads/planecrash.jpg

ABOVE: http://www.iranfocus.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=4747

IMAGE URL: http://www.prisonplanet.com/images/december2005/061205crash3.jpg

FROM: http://www.prisonplanet.com/articles/december2005/061205planecrashes.htm

El Al plane crash in the Netherlands

IMAGE URL: http://www.airdisaster.com/photos/elal1862/1.jpg

CAPTION: The aircraft crashed while attempting an emergency landing following the separation of two engines from the right wing of the aircraft. The aircraft impacted an apartment building vertically, killing 47 residents.

ABOVE: http://www.airdisaster.com/photos/elal1862/photo.shtml

IMAGE URL: http://www.airdisaster.com/photos/elal1862/3.jpg

CAPTION: “Date: 04 October 1992. Airline: El Al Cargo.  Flight No.: 1862.  Aircraft: B747-258F.  Location: Amsterdam, Holland.  Fatalities: 4:4+47. Photographer: Frank van den Berg.”

FROM: http://www.airdisaster.com/photos/elal1862/3.shtml

IMAGE URL: http://www.airdisaster.com/photos/elal1862/2.jpg

FROM: http://www.airdisaster.com/photos/elal1862/2.shtml

IMAGE URL: http://www.gearthhacks.com/showimage.php?image=new/080505/800966Clipboard05.jpg

CAPTION: Description: On 4th October 1992, at about 6.30 in the evening, El Al cargo flight LY 1862 from Amsterdam to Tel Aviv, a Boeing 747-200, crashed into a 12-story block of flats in Bijlmer, on the outskirts of Amsterdam, killing its crew of three, a “non-revenue passenger”, and at least 43 people on the ground. Because some of the people in Bijlmer were migrants, who were without documents, the full number of victims remains unknown. Two of the plane’s engines had broken off the right wing and it crashed trying to return to Schiphol airport. The plane’s cargo included, amongst other things: bullets, spare parts for AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles, spare parts for Patriot missiles and 190 litres of dimethyl methylphosphonate, used in the synthesis of Sarin nerve gas. The plane, like all Boeing 747s at that time, also contained about 400 kg of depleted uranium as trim weight in the tail, a fact unknown during the recovery effort.

ABOVE URL: http://www.gearthhacks.com/dlfile15827/Bijlmer-Disaster—Amsterdam—Airplane-Crash-Site-(overlays).htm

Plane crash on York and 72nd

IMAGE: http://msnbcmedia3.msn.com/j/msnbc/Components/Photos/061103/061103_lidle_vmed12p.grid-4×2.jpg

CAPTION: A helicopter flies near the fire-scarred Belaire Condo high-rise on Manhattan’s Upper East Side Oct. 11 after a small plane carrying New York Yankees pitcher Cory Lidle crashed into it.

FROM: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15548143/ns/us_news-life/

ABOVE: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gallega/267780095/

IMAGE URL: http://gothamist.com/attachments/jen/2006_10_lidle4.jpg

CAPTION: A single engine plane crashed into a residential building at 524 East 72nd Street. Debris from the plane and building fell as floors of the building caught fire.

FROM: http://gothamist.com/2006/10/12/plane_crash_on.php

ABOVE: http://blogs.usatoday.com/ondeadline/2006/10/ (DEAD LINK)

Other high-rise fires

Building Date Fire Duration (hours)
World Trade Center North Tower February 23, 1975 3 to 4
World Trade Center North Tower September 11, 2001 1¾ *
World Trade Center South Tower September 11, 2001 1 *
World Trade Center Seven September 11, 2001 **
1st Interstate Bank Building May 4-5, 1988 3.5
Broadgate Phase 8 June 23rd, 1990 4.5
1 New York Plaza Fire August 5, 1970 6
One Meridian Plaza February 23-24, 1991 19 (11 uncontrolled)

ABOVE: http://worcester.indymedia.org/news/2005/04/1099_comment.php (DEAD LINK)

The 1975 World Trade Center Fire

This 110-story steel-framed office building suffered a fire on the 11th floor on February 23, 1975. The loss was estimated at over $2,000,000. The building is one of a pair of towers, 412 m in height. The fire started at approximately 11:45 P.M. in a furnished office on the 11th floor and spread through the corridors toward the main open office area. A porter saw flames under the door and sounded the alarm. It was later that the smoke detector in the air-conditioning plenum on the 11th floor was activated. The delay was probably because the air-conditioning system was turned off at night. The building engineers placed the ventilation system in the purge mode, to blow fresh air into the core area and to draw air from all the offices on the 11th floor so as to prevent further smoke spread. The fire department on arrival found a very intense fire. It was not immediately known that the fire was spreading vertically from floor to floor through openings in the floor slab. These 300-mm x 450-mm (12-in. x 18-in.) openings in the slab provided access for telephone cables. Subsidiary fires on the 9th to the 19th floors were discovered and readily extinguished. The only occupants of the building at the time of fire were cleaning and service personnel. They were evacuated without any fatalities. However, there were 125 firemen involved in fighting this fire and 28 sustained injuries from the intense heat and smoke. The cause of the fire is unknown.


COMMENT: And we have the example of a fire in the World Trade Center itself to show that skyscraper buildings don’t explode into dust and fling out beams from an office fire.

Houses on fire

The pictures below show houses that were affected by fire. As you can see the structural skeleton is the last to be affected and in many cases is still standing even though the fire consumes the whole dwelling, and in these cases, the structures are made of wood, concrete and brick mainly, unlike the WTC buildings, which had steel making the structure of the core and the peripheral skeleton.

ABOVE: http://brian.spacelist.org/photo/fire.shtml

ABOVE: http://brian.spacelist.org/photo/fire.shtml

ABOVE: http://brian.spacelist.org/photo/fire.shtml

ABOVE: http://brian.spacelist.org/photo/fire.shtml

ABOVE: http://babybluecafe.blogspot.com/2006/09/verses-on-burning-of-her-house-by-anne.html

ABOVE: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18309191/

ABOVE: http://www.bellefontearts.org/Virtual_walk/Bush_House.htm

ABOVE: http://www.bellefontearts.org/Virtual_walk/Bush_House.htm

ABOVE: http://www.racereports.net/ReportDetail.asp?Race=371

ABOVE: http://www.leesburgfire.org/train.html

ABOVE: http://www.organizingla.com/organizingla_blog/2007/05/index.html

ABOVE: http://seanrogg.com/works_wood.php

ABOVE: http://www.treehugger.com/2007/02/18-week/

Wood stronger than steel? – Houses still standing after fire

ABOVE: http://www.belgrafix.com/gtoday/2006news/Jun/Jun24/Three%20children%20die%20in%20fire.htm

ABOVE: http://www.flickr.com/photos/66963884@N00/

Even this shack is still standing after a fire:

ABOVE: http://www.501blog.com/?p=66

The original “loveshack” from the B52 song:

ABOVE: http://www.angwinreporter.com/AR2005-20/index-print.html

ABOVE: http://www.angwinreporter.com/AR2005-20/index-print.html

ABOVE: http://www.domebuilder.com/

ABOVE: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:State_college_pa_burned_house.jpg

ABOVE: http://nometh.org/community.html

ABOVE: http://www.dce.harvard.edu/pubs/lamplighter/2006/spring/displaced.html

ABOVE: http://www.acepryhill.com/archives/2004_04.html

ABOVE: http://www.firewisemanagement.com/

Truss failure from fire? – The Broadgate Fire

The above photo shows a number of trusses and a buckled steel column after the Broadgate Phase 8 fire.

Consider the following quote from section 1.1 concerning the fire:

“On the 23rd June 1990 a fire developed in the partly completed fourteen storey building in the Broadgate development. The fire began in a large contractors hut on the first floor and smoke spread undetected throughout the building. The fire detection and sprinkler system were not yet operational out of working hours.

The fire lasted 4.5 hours including 2 hours where the fire exceeded 1000°C (1832°F). The direct fire loss was in excess of £25 million however, only a fraction of the cost (£2 million) represented structural frame and floor damage. The major damage was to the building fabric as a result of smoke. Moreover, the structural repairs after the fire took only 30 days. The structure of the building was a steel frame with composite steel deck concrete floors and was only partially (fire) protected at this stage of construction. During and after the fire, despite large deflections in the elements exposed to fire, the structure behaved well and there was no collapse of any of the columns, beams or floors.

The Broadgate phase 8 fire was the first opportunity to examine the influence of fire on the structural behaviour of a modern fast track steel framed building with composite construction.”

For more on this fire: report.

ABOVE FROM: http://guardian.150m.com/wtc/small/trusses.htm

The February 1975 World Trade Center North Tower Fire

This 110-story steel-framed office building suffered a fire on the 11th floor on February 23, 1975. The loss was estimated at over $2,000,000. The building is one of a pair of towers, 412 m in height. The fire started at approximately 11:45 P.M. in a furnished office on the 11th floor and spread through the corridors toward the main open office area. A porter saw flames under the door and sounded the alarm. It was later that the smoke detector in the air-conditioning plenum on the 11th floor was activated. The delay was probably because the air-conditioning system was turned off at night. The building engineers placed the ventilation system in the purge mode, to blow fresh air into the core area and to draw air from all the offices on the 11th floor so as to prevent further smoke spread. The fire department on arrival found a very intense fire. It was not immediately known that the fire was spreading vertically from floor to floor through openings in the floor slab. These 300-mm x 450-mm (12-in. x 18-in.) openings in the slab provided access for telephone cables. Subsidiary fires on the 9th to the 19th floors were discovered and readily extinguished. The only occupants of the building at the time of fire were cleaning and service personnel. They were evacuated without any fatalities. However, there were 125 firemen involved in fighting this fire and 28 sustained injuries from the intense heat and smoke. The cause of the fire is unknown.


Fire extinguished in China’s tallest building

SHANGHAI, Aug 14 (Reuters) – Firemen extinguished a blaze on high floors of China’s tallest building in the Shanghai financial district on Tuesday, authorities said. There were no casualties.

The fire at the 101-storey Shanghai World Financial Centre, which is under construction and close to completion, was apparently caused by a welding torch which ignited workplace materials, a city government spokeswoman said.

Thick smoke billowed from several floors of the skyscraper about 40 storeys above the ground, witnesses said.

The blaze was put out a little more than an hour after it was reported, the city spokeswoman said.


ABOVE: http://infowars.com/articles/sept11/china_tallest_building_catches_fire_no_collapse.htm

ABOVE FROM:  https://www.ninecommentaries.com/news/7-8-14/58774.html

ABOVE FROM:  https://www.ninecommentaries.com/news/7-8-14/58774.html

DAILYMOTION VIDEO: China’s tallest building on fire

Humans relatively unaffected by the fire intensity before collapse

We are supposed to believe the fire did this to steel beams in the core and the periphery, but didn’t affect these people (see below). A fire intense enough to cause bending of massive columns of steel weighing 3,000 pounds (1,600 degrees Celsius) would have caused considerable damage to any person near the fire. However, even though we are told that the fires reached temperatures to bend thick steel beams into horse-shoe shapes, the people can withstand the intensity of the fire and are standing and waving and trying to escape the situation.

Below are photos of several people on the floors affected by the plane hit that are scrambling about. The woman in the black top, Edna Cintron, was able to stand at the edge of the building until the building suddenly collapsed. The fires would have been most intense on the floors where the planes struck the buildings. The evidence does not fit the known facts and the story of plane fires causing the Twin Towers plus an additional five buildings in the complex to collapse and even powderize does not make sense.

People standing in the hole


IMAGE: http://www.v911t.org/

ABOVE: Edna Cintron is standing to the right of the picture, able to withstand the heat of the fires that were supposedly in the 1200-1600 degree range in close vicinity to her.

ABOVE: A close-up of Edna Cintron. This photo was taken shortly before the collapse of the building.

ABOVE: Another person standing and also able to withstand the supposedly intense fire. Note the lack of flames in the person’s vicinity, although this was the floor that the plane hit and supposedly entered the building.

ABOVE: Another picture of Edna Cintron who was standing visible to observers until shortly before the building suddenly exploded and “collapsed”.

Video of woman (Edna Cintron) standing at the hole

DAILYMOTION VIDEO: Edna Cintron could be seen on the floor where the plane hit. As can be seen the heat from the fire was tolerable. This is not consistent with a fire whose intensity is so high it bends thick beams of steel. (“Woman waving from WTC”)

Windsor Tower fire (Madrid)

ABOVE FROM: http://www.iklimnet.com/hotelfires/windsor_madrid.html


Location: Madrid, Spain
Fire Event: 12 February 2005
Fire started at the 21st floor, spreading to all floors above the 2nd floor. Fire duration: 18 ~ 20 hours
Fire Damage: Extensive slab collapse above the 17th floor. The building was totally destroyed by the fire.
Construction Type: Reinforced concrete core with waffle slabs supported by internal RC columns and steel beams, with perimeter steel columns which were unprotected above the 17th floor level at the time of the fire.
Fire Resistance: Passive fire protection. No sprinklers.
Building Type: 106 m (32 storeys). Commercial.

ABOVE: http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy/HistoricFires/BuildingFires/default.htm

Timeline of fire development

Estimated time frame of fire development (NILIM 2005)
23:00 Fire started at the 21st Floor
23:05 ~ 23:20 After receiving a fire signal, the security guards went to the 21st floor and attempting to fight the fire before giving up
23:21 Fire brigade was called
23:25 Fire brigade arrived
23:30 Fire brigade started to fight the fire (news report)
00:00 All floors above the 21st floor were in fire
(news report)
00:30 Fire brigade retreated and adopted a defensive position,
preventing fire spread to adjacent buildings
02:00 Fire spread below the 17th floor
02:15 Chunks of facade started falling off (news report)
03:30 Fire spread below 16th floor, crossing over
the upper technical floor
04:00 Floors at upper level collapsed (news report)
05:30 Fire spread below the 12th floor (news report)
08:30 Fire spread below the 4th floor
13:30 Fire was under controlled
17:00 Fire brigade declared the put out of the fire (news report)

ABOVE: http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy/HistoricFires/BuildingFires/default.htm

The Building

The Windsor Tower or Torre Windsor (officially known as Edificio Windsor) was a 32-storey concrete building with a reinforced concrete central core. A typical floor was two-way spanning 280mm deep waffle slab supported by the concrete core, internal RC columns with additional 360mm deep steel I-beams and steel perimeter columns. Originally, the perimeter columns and internal steel beams were left unprotected in accordance with the Spanish building code at the time of construction

The building featured two heavily reinforced concrete transfer structures (technical floors) between the 2nd and 3rd Floors, and between the 16th and 17th Floors respectively. The original cladding system was fixed to the steel perimeter columns and the floor slabs. The perimeter columns were supported by the transfer structures at the 17th and 3rd Floor levels.

The building was subjected to a three year refurbishment programme of works when the fire broke out. The major works included the installations of:
– Fire protection to the perimeter steel columns using a boarding system
– Fire protection to the internal steel beams using a spray protection
– A sprinkler system
– A new aluminium cladding system

The refurbishment was carried out floor-by-floor from the lower floors upwards. By the time the fire broke out, the fire protection for all steelwork below the 17th floor had been completed except a proportion of the 9th and 15th floors. However, not all the gaps between the cladding and the floor slabs had been sealed with fireproof material (Dave 2005). Also fire stopping to voids and fire doors to vertical shafts were not fully installed.


Fire Protection System

The Windsor Tower’s original structural design complied with the Spanish building codes in 1970s. At the time of the construction, the Spanish codes did not require fire protection to steelwork and sprinkler fire protection for the building.

As a result, the original existing steelwork was left unprotected and no sprinkler system was installed in the building. The gap between the original cladding and floor slabs was not firestopped as well. In fact, these weak links in the fire protection of the building was being rectified in the refurbishment project at the time of the fire.

Since the building adopted the “open plan” floor concept, effectively, the fire compartmentation could only be floor-by-floor (about 40 x 25m). However, the vertical compartmentation might not be fully achieved due to the lack of firestop system in floor openings and between the original cladding and the floor slabs.


The Fire

The fire was believed to have been caused by a short-circuit on the 21st floor. However, some facts under investigation point that it could be induced by arsonists. The actual cause will be difficult to be found due to the collapse of the break-out floor.

It was reported that the fire started at 23:00 at the 21st Floor. Within one hour, all floors above the 21st Floor were on fire. In the following hours, the fire gradually spread downwards to the lower technical floor at the 3rd Floor. The total fire duration was estimated to be 18 ~ 20 hours.

Based on the various sources of information, Table 1 shows the estimated time frame for the fire development in the Windsor Tower.


The Damage

The Windsor Tower was completely gutted by the fire on 12 February 2005. A large portion of the floor slabs above the 17th Floor progressively collapsed during the fire when the unprotected steel perimeter columns on the upper levels buckled and collapsed (see Figure 1). It was believed that the massive transfer structure at the 17th Floor level resisted further collapse of the building.

The whole building was beyond repair and had to be demolished. The estimated property loss was €72m before the renovation.

Based on the footages of available media filming, Table 2 summarises the estimated time frame for the structural collapses of the Windsor Tower.The cause of the blaze has not been established.



ABOVE: http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy/HistoricFires/BuildingFires/default.htm


ABOVE: http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy/HistoricFires/BuildingFires/default.htm


ABOVE: http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy/HistoricFires/BuildingFires/default.htm

ABOVE: http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy/HistoricFires/BuildingFires/default.htm


ABOVE: http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy/HistoricFires/BuildingFires/default.htm


Image URL: http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/images_export/CaseStudy/HistoricFires/BuildingFires/collapsedArea.gif

URL: http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy/HistoricFires/BuildingFires/default.htm Caption: Collapse situation of the upper floors


ABOVE: http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy/HistoricFires/BuildingFires/default.htm

More pictures of Madrid Windsor Tower fire

ABOVE: http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/spain_fire_2005.html

ABOVE: http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/spain_fire_2005.html

ABOVE: http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/spain_fire_2005.html

ABOVE: http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/spain_fire_2005.html

ABOVE: http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/spain_fire_2005.html

ABOVE: http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/spain_fire_2005.html

ABOVE: http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/spain_fire_2005.html

Videos of Madrid Windsor Tower fire

VIDEO: Windsor Tower burning – set to music

VIDEO: Madrid skyscraper, Windsor Tower, on fire

VIDEO: Madrid skyscraper – burned out but standing after fire

VIDEO: Madrid’s Windsor Tower on fire

ABOVE: Madrid Windsor on fire – from WhatReallyHappened.com

VIDEO: Windsor Tower vs WTC Twin Towers

More pictures of Windsor Tower fire

ABOVE: http://www.iklimnet.com/hotelfires/windsor_madrid_pictures.html

ABOVE: http://www.iklimnet.com/hotelfires/windsor_madrid_pictures.html

ABOVE: http://www.iklimnet.com/hotelfires/windsor_madrid_pictures.html

ABOVE: http://www.iklimnet.com/hotelfires/windsor_madrid_pictures.html

ABOVE: http://www.iklimnet.com/hotelfires/windsor_madrid_pictures.html

ABOVE: http://www.iklimnet.com/hotelfires/windsor_madrid_pictures.html

Taiwan Building Fire

Fire raged through the upper floors of a landmark skyscraper in the Taiwanese city of Taichung, killing four before fire crews managed to put it out.

Helicopters winched nine people from the roof of the 25-storey Golden Plaza Tower in the centre of the island’s third city as smoke swirled up.

The fire began at about 1600 (0800 GMT), apparently in a disco on the 18th floor, and spread quickly.

People streamed out into the street, covering their heads from glass shards.

Taiwanese television showed diners who had been eating in the revolving restaurant on the roof being lifted one by one to safety in helicopter rescue baskets.

The tower houses offices, shops and tutorial schools, as well as the disco, which is not thought to have been operating at the time.

At least two of the victims, said to be employees in the tower, were found on the 18th floor.

None of three people injured was seriously hurt, Reuters news agency reports.

The agency said fire crews took up to an hour and a half to extinguish the blaze.


VIDEO: Taiwanese tower on fire (“Woman waving from the WTC”)

Original link for video: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4300601.stm

ABOVE: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4300601.stm

ABOVE: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4300601.stm

Comparison of cores

ABOVE: http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/wtc1_core.html

ABOVE: http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/wtc1_core.html

WTC Construction Manager’s statement

VIDEO Interview date: January, 2001. De Martini died in the 9/11 attacks. (“De Martini Construction Manager on the WTC Twin Towers”)

“The building was designed to have a fully loaded 707 crash into it, that was the largest plane at the time. I believe that the building could probably sustain multiple impacts of jet liners because this structure is like the mosquito netting on your screen door – this intense grid – and the plane is just a pencil puncturing that screen netting. It really does nothing to the screen netting.”


Boeing 707–Boeing 767 comparison


The Boeing 707 and 767 are very similar aircraft, with the main differences being that the 767 is slightly heavier and the 707 is faster.

Since Boeing 707 has a higher thrust to weight ratio, it would be traveling faster on take-off and on landing.

  • The thrust to weight ratio for a Boeing 707 is 4 x 18,000/336,000 = 0.214286.
  • The thrust to weight ratio for a Boeing 767 is 2 x 31,500/395,000 = 0.159494.

In all the likely variations of an accidental impact with the WTC, the Boeing 707 would be traveling faster. In terms of impact damage, this higher speed would more than compensate for the slightly lower weight of the Boeing 707.

In conclusion we can say that if the twin towers were designed to survive the impact of a Boeing 707, then they were necessarily designed to survive the impact of a Boeing 767.


Jet fuel and the WTC

“The Boeing 767 is capable of carrying up to 23,980 gallons of fuel and it is estimated that, at the time of impact, each aircraft had approximately 10,000 gallons of unused fuel on board (compiled from Government sources).”

ABOVE: Quote from the FEMA report into the collapse of WTC’s One and Two (Chapter Two).

Since the aircraft were only flying from Boston to Los Angeles, they would have been far from fully fueled on takeoff (the aircraft have a maximum range of 7,600 miles). They would have carried just enough fuel for the trip, together with some additional fuel for the safety factor. Remember, that carrying excess fuel means higher fuel bills and fewer paying passengers. The aircraft would have also burnt some fuel between Boston and New York.

ABOVE FROM: http://guardian.150m.com/wtc/how-hot.htm

“If one assumes that approximately 3,000 gallons of fuel were consumed in the initial fireballs, then the remainder either escaped the impact floors in the manners described above or was consumed by the fire on the impact floors. If half flowed away, then 3,500 gallons remained on the impact floors to be consumed in the fires that followed.”

Quote from the FEMA report into the collapse of WTC’s One and Two (Chapter Two).


Another reason that we know the fires were not serious enough to cause structural failure, is that witnesses tell us this. The impact floors of the south tower were 78-84. Here are a few words from some of the witnesses:

Stanley Praimnath was on the 81st floor of the South Tower: “The plane impacts. I try to get up and then I realize that I’m covered up to my shoulder in debris. And when I’m digging through under all this rubble, I can see the bottom wing starting to burn, and that wing is wedged 20 feet in my office doorway.”

Donovan Cowan was in an open elevator at the 78th floor Sky-lobby: We went into the elevator. As soon as I hit the button, that’s when there was a big boom. We both got knocked down. I remember feeling this intense heat. The doors were still open. The heat lasted for maybe 15 to 20 seconds I guess. Then it stopped.”

Ling Young was in her 78th floor office: “Only in my area were people alive, and the people alive were from my office. I figured that out later because I sat around in there for 10 or 15 minutes. That’s how I got so burned.”


WTC Twin Tower collapse – analysis



New York, USA
Date 11 September 2001
Damage: North Tower (WTC 1):
A Boeing 767-200ER series aircraft hit between the 94th and
98th floors roughly at the centre of the north face at
08:46.South Tower (WTC 2): A Boeing 767-200ER series aircraft hit between the 78th
and 84th floors toward the east side of the south face
at 09:03.The plane crashes caused considerable damage to principal
structural components and multiple floor fires above
the impacted floors.
Construction Type: WTC 1 collapsed at 10:29, 102 minutes after the crash.

WTC 2 collapsed at 09:59, 56 minutes after the crash.
Steel perimeter frame-tube system comprising external
perimeter columns, central core columns and concrete
slabs on steel bar trusses.

Fire Resistance: Passive fire protection. Automatic sprinklers system.
Building Type: Commercial.
North Tower: 417 m (101 storeys)
South Tower: 415 m (101 storeys)

ABOVE: http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy/HistoricFires/BuildingFires/worldTradeCenter.htm

Structure of the WTC:



ABOVE: http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy/HistoricFires/BuildingFires/worldTradeCenter.htm

BELOW: The fires were much less extensive than in the Madrid building fire and lasted for much less time. However, the scale of damage to the buildings hit by the planes as well as the buildings in the vicinity was incomparable.


ABOVE: IMG https://www.gearthblog.com/images/images906/wtc.jpg URL http://www.gearthblog.com/blog/archives/2006/09/

Why WTC dust is significant

Pardon Our Dust,


Why the World Trade Center Dust Matters

by Michael Green,

April 20, 2009

Copyright 2009 Michael Green

John R. Moffett, the distinguished neuroscientist and managing editor of OPEDNEWS, has brought his considerable prestige to bear on the issue of whether the Twin Towers and WTC7 were destroyed by controlled demolition using the incendiary and sometimes explosive thermite as a key component. Unfortunately, he has done so with either malicious incompetence, or worse, a cynical deliberate determination to distort, conceal, and suppress the findings of a recently published scientific article, “Active Thermitic Material Discovered in Dust from the 9/11 World Trade Center Catastrophe,” that dispositively proves the presence of unignited explosives in the WTC dust. Neither motivation on Dr. Moffett’s part obviously recommends him for his post at OPEDNEWS. I will first address Dr. Moffett’s smear piece, which was promoted to OPEDNEWS headline status on 4/15/2009, then, the importance of the thermitic dust. If you think that 911 isn’t your issue, you should pay close attention.

The evidence that first brought me around to considering 911 as a USG covert operation was the National Aeronautics and Science Administration’s (NASA’s) publication of a thermal survey taken September 16, 2001, that showed ground temperature hot spots of 1,100 and 1,400 degrees Fahrenheit. Such temperatures are far too high to be produced by an open-air hydrocarbon fire except in very short bursts, but certainly not as an enduring after-effect. Students of 911 have collected a vast array of evidence that temperatures at the WTC were generated far in excess of what normal hydrocarbon fires could produce. The evidence includes eyewitness testimony of molten iron or steel weeks after the event, videos of orange molten metal pouring from the South Tower minutes before its destruction, and microspheres of once-molten iron in the dust examined by the United States Geological Survey forensics team (without further comment or analysis!).


The importance of iron microspheres is simple. Iron melts around 2,800 Fahrenheit, which is about twice the highest temperature that an open-air fire could produce. A microsphere can only be produced by first melting iron, then dispersing the melted iron by some energetic means (like explosion) into an aerosol whose particles, influenced by the surface tension of the molten metal, form spheres as the smallest surface area required to contain any specified volume of matter. Once again, as with the NASA thermal survey, an intense source of energy other than the WTC fires is required to melt iron or steel, as even the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) admitted in its reports. The science is pretty simple; only its political consequences are complicated, and troubling.

Thermite is simply a combination of aluminum and iron oxide, both in powdered form. When heated to a certain temperature, the highly reactive aluminum steals the oxygen atoms from the iron oxide. This chemical reaction releases intense heat in excess of 4,500 degrees Fahrenheit, hot enough to cut through steel, and produces molten iron as its reaction product.

The first scientist to investigate thermite as a key component of the WTC demolitions was Steven E. Jones, who was then in 2005 a tenured professor of physics at Brigham Young University with a specialization in muon-catalyzed fusion. Jones was subsequently forced to resign because of his 911 research, but he continued his research independently. Alas for Jones and the group of same-minded scientists who were persuaded by the evidence that thermite was involved, the thought that should have come first came considerably later: “No incendiary or explosive is likely to combust completely in an environment of massive collapse and disruption such as 911, so if we are right, there ought to be both residue of and unexploded samples of thermite in the WTC dust. We need to look at the dust.” Jones first made a request for the dust in an online paper in the fall of 2006 and examined his first sample in June 2007. Better late than never.

Jones obtained five samples of the dust from concerned citizens who had collected it on or shortly after 911. Four of these people signed affidavits regarding the provenance of the dust. The fifth was unwilling to do so, and though his sample contained the same materials as the others, it was not included in the specimens examined for the article. One of the samples was collected ten minutes after the collapse of the first Tower, so was not possibly contaminated by the collapse of WTC7 later that afternoon, let alone the even later steel-cutting operations. In another instance, Jones personally traveled to California to obtain in the presence of other scientists a second sample from a woman who had provided a sample by mail, thus assuring that no switch had occurred between mailing and receipt. The provenance of the dust is not in doubt and can if necessary be compared with dust samples collected by official agencies that refused to analyze their contents.

All of the dust samples contained an abundance of iron-rich microspheres as well as a collection of tiny chips that were red on one side, gray on the other. These red-gray chips were put in a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), a device that slowly heats the chips and measures how much energy the chips emit or absorb at a given temperature. The chips all ignited at 425 degrees Centigrade (+/- 10 degrees) and produced microspheres of molten iron, which is the reaction product of a thermitic reaction.

2Al + Fe2O3 → Al2O3 + 2Fe (molten iron)

Just to make things clear, iron melts at 2,800 Fahrenheit, about 1538oC, so the red-gray chips – as the paper itself makes abundantly clear – generated intense temperatures and are a manufactured incendiary (with explosive potential).

To confirm this finding, the authors measured the energy density of the red-gray chips – the amount of energy generated per gram of material – and compared it to the energy density of a variety of explosives and incendiaries, including conventional thermite. The energy density of the red-gray chips exceeds that of standard explosives like HMX and TNT. The authors state:

It is striking that some of the red/gray chips release more energy in kJ/g than does ordinary thermite, as shown in the blue bar graphs above. [Their Figure 30]

That the energy density of the red-gray chips exceeded the energy density of conventional thermite was especially striking because only the red side of the chip contained the thermitic materials; the gray material was essentially inert and did not contribute to the energy density, but diminished it. This finding was one amongst many results that lead the authors to conclude that the red-gray chips probably contained nano-thermite, a kind of “super” thermite with ultra-fine particles of aluminum and iron-oxide.

The authors then subjected the iron-rich microspherical residue of the red-gray chips to X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) to compare it with the profile of microspherical residue from known thermite combustions and found them to be virtually identical. Additionally, both were virtually identical to the XEDS of microspheres found in the WTC dust itself, as reported in a previous paper, “Extremely high temperatures during the World Trade Center destruction” [PDF]

As the principal author, chemist Niels H. Harrit, remarked in a 10-minute appearance on Danish television, the paper is merely the keystone in an already well-constructed arch of evidence that the Towers and WTC7 were taken down by controlled demolition. Unfortunately, Dr. Moffett has only pretended to review even the findings in this paper. Not a single one of the facts that I have presented in this review of the “Active Thermitic Material” paper was presented in his review, and there are many more compelling findings that support the same conclusion with which this popular essay will not burden the reader. Instead, Dr. Moffett has actively suppressed them and maligned them by comparing them to the wildly speculative and false claims of Judy Wood in both his title, “Was it Nanotech-Thermite or Phasers that took down the WTC?” and in his conclusions. Ms. Wood has tried to peddle an entirely speculative and contrary-to-evidence fantasy of high-energy beams, phasers, destroying the Towers.

I am going to focus on the central deceit of Dr. Moffett’s article. Dr. Moffett dismisses the notion of thermite as absurd and writes,

Before I get into details about why this work is so poorly done, and why the interpretations of the researchers are so suspect, it is important to state that the thermite argument was put forward by these same researchers years ago, and the idea was fully debunked years ago. See for example here: 911myths.com [PDF]

A central point of the paper referenced by Moffett is that the presence of ingredients of thermite (e.g., aluminum and iron oxide) is easily explained by, for example, the aluminum cladding on the Towers and the presence of rust (iron oxide). Dr. Moffett’s article elaborates on this simple theme:

It is no small coincidence that the major components that the researchers detected in the red and gray chips include iron, aluminum, oxygen, silica, and carbon, since these relate to the primary building materials that the WTC was constructed from. The girders were steel, which rusts to iron oxide, the façade was aluminum, and the floors were concrete. The traces of calcium and sulfur could easily be from wallboard (calcium sulfate), as the authors themselves conclude….

X-ray dispersive spectroscopy can tell you what elements are in a sample, but not what molecules those elements are incorporated into. Any sample of dust from the WTC collapse would contain similar amounts of these elements because those are the primary elements that made up the steel superstructure, concrete flooring, aluminum facade and other building materials (not to mention the aluminum fuselage of the aircraft).

Thus, Dr. Moffett represents the nine authors of the paper as bumbling idiots who confuse the presence of elements of thermite in the debris with evidence for thermite itself. Yet, on p.13 the authors state:

The existence of elemental aluminum and iron oxide [in the red portion of the red-gray chips] leads to the obvious hypothesis that the material may contain thermite. However, before concluding that the red material found in the WTC dust is thermitic, further testing would be required. For example, how does the material behave when heated in a sensitive calorimeter? If the material does not react vigorously it may be argued that although ingredients of thermite are present, the material may not really be thermitic.

Because the authors understood the issue, they performed the relevant tests that Dr. Moffett suppressed. Instead, Moffett distorted and trivialized the complex case they made with the following aside:

The researchers also showed that the chips could be ignited, and that they burned at a lower temperature than normal thermite. This is of course not surprising since metals such as aluminum do burn if they are complexed with oxidizing agents, and are heated enough.

But of course what the researchers did was to show not merely that the chips could be ignited at a lower temperature than a known nano-composite thermite, but also that the chips were fiercely exothermic, generated iron microspheres with the XEDS of thermite, and released more energy per gram than known samples of conventional thermite possibly could. Thus, curiously, for some reason, the estimable Dr. Moffett writes as though there were one and only one kind of thermite, even though the paper he pretends to review emphasizes that there are many kinds, including thermitic materials researched by the military for both incendiary and explosive purposes, and it provides citations from mainstream journals to support this claim. Instead, Moffett writes, “It is also important to note that thermite is not explosive, and it is difficult to ignite.” I hope that willful ignorance or deliberate deceit will not become a standard at OPEDNEWS.

Couldn’t the Rubble Make the Thermite?

Let us return to Dr. Moffett’s favorite article that “fully debunked” thermite as the key incendiary/explosive in the destruction of the World Trade Center. Remarkably, that article ultimately attributed the destruction of the Towers to thermite, but claimed that the thermite was manufactured on site by the crash, the fire that melted the aluminum from the planes, and various elements of lime, gypsum, water, and rust from the materials of the buildings with which the aluminum combined to produce intense thermitic reactions that destroyed the Towers. The author, Frank Greening, Ph.D., also speculated that the building materials had kept the ground fires burning for months after the collapses because hot aluminum combined with high pH water – made high pH by the aluminum grouting! – to produce combustible hydrogen. The author did this without any direct evidence that such was the case. Fascinating!

An essay I wrote on the Kennedy assassination lays out the general strategy and tactic taken by the USG assets and agents assigned to the media cover-up of major domestic covert operations. Instead of following the evidence and pursuing its obvious implications, the agents – and the voluntarily self-deceived – ignore or distort the natural implications of the evidence and in its place present an entirely speculative account of what the evidence “conceivably” might mean that is consistent with the official story. Crucially, the import of any piece of evidence is usually isolated from the rich body of other evidence so that the “conceivable” interpretation may seem plausible. The defenders of the official story then demand that the “conspiracy theorists” refute their speculation, usually when there is no means of doing so.

In the case of 911, Dr. Moffett’s intellectual compatriot, Frank Greening, offers up a witches brew in which:

The molten aluminum re-ignites some of the smoldering fires and rapidly burns through other combustible materials that survived the initial conflagration. Molten aluminum also falls onto fractured concrete, gypsum and rusted steel surfaces inducing violent thermite explosions, dispersing globules of molten metal and igniting new fires.

Steven Jones already rebutted the witches brew “hypothesis,” by directly combining molten aluminum alternately with crushed gypsum, wet and dry concrete, and rusted steel. See pp. 8-13 of his paper, “Why, Indeed, did the World Trade Center Buildings Completely Collapse?” at the Journal of 911 Studies site, http://www.journalof911studies.com Jones states therein:

“Nor were violent reactions observed when we dropped molten aluminum onto crushed gypsum and concrete (wet or dry) and rusty steel.” [ Jones, 2006 ] These experiments lend no support whatever to the notion [see Greening, 2006] that molten aluminum in the WTC Towers could have destroyed the enormous steel columns in the cores of the buildings, even if those columns were rusty and somehow subjected to direct contact with liquid aluminum.

In those same pages Jones also puts to rest Greening’s hope – echoing both FEMA and NIST reports on 911 – that the orange molten metal pouring from the 81st floor of the South Tower might be the melted aluminum from the airliner rather than molten iron from the thermite reaction. This complex rebuttal should be read in Jones’s original paper.

Greening’s “witches brew” production of thermite is a non-starter for other obvious reasons. As noted, two of the red/gray chip samples generated more energy per gram than the theoretical limit for conventional thermite, and did so from the red layer alone. Further details of Greening’s fascinating speculation need not concern us for another very simple reason: the red/gray chips are patently cutting-edge manufactured materials. Random blends of building materials cannot form uniform chips of red/gray layers with precisely identical composition. Red layers for each of the four samples had XEDS spectra that were identical to each other and contained the ingredients of thermite; so were the XEDS spectra of each of the gray layers identical to each other, and were inert materials. Such identical composition is not consistent with a variety of random mixtures scattered to the winds by the buildings’ collapses.

Direct inspection of the red/gray chips, as well as their microstructure, reveals a solid compact gray layer to which the highly granular thermitic red layer adheres. A nanometer is one billionth of a meter, about 4 hundred millionths of an inch (1 nanometer = 3.93700787 × 10-8 inch). Magnification of the red layer reveals highly engineered plate-like aluminum particles 40 nm in thickness (40 billionths of a meters) mixed in a solidified matrix with remarkably uniform iron-rich rhomboid particles. (The aluminum particle in the image below looks like a flying saucer.) The highly uniform nano-metric particle sizes are found in engineered explosives, but not in normal building materials. The dense uniform mixture of nano-sized particles is what allows the product to ignite below the temperature of even commercial nano-thermite, and to generate the intense energy output per gram that exceeds the theoretical limits for optimally prepared conventional thermite.





The pictures, especially combined with the nano-thermite performance of the red/gray chips, should persuade any reasonable reader that chips present in all the dust samples are manufactured and engineered. Thus, I suggest that the only witches brew you need to be aware of is the calculated disinformation that replaces the evidence and its face value with a supposedly “conceivable” interpretation of a portion of the evidence – that must also blind you to much of the actual evidence – in order to maintain your devotion to a fictitious Official Story of 911.

Why The Dust Matters

I will be brief here from necessity. If the Towers and Building 7 were destroyed by controlled demolition, then these vastly complicated acts were coordinated through the security apparatus of the World Trade Center in conjunction with high-ranking members of the U.S. military, especially the Air Force, whose cooperation was required to assure that the commercial airplanes hit their targets, and with the media, whose job it was to disseminate the fiction of Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda from the mouths of the intelligence agencies that coordinated this grand act of political theater. The cover-up was managed by control of the crime scene and subsequent “investigations”, destruction of the evidence, and was anticipated through a variety of legislation and executive orders that are well known to 911 researchers. The USG, in cooperation with elements of private industry and finance capital, brought us 911. The 911 Commission, like the Warren Commission before it, remains a cruel hoax to euthanize critical public thinking. Not all of the actors who served the cover-up were aware of their roles, but they were ultimately set into motion by those who were.

Behind, and parallel to, the visible and overt political power structure lies the fundamental source of political power and action in the United States. It is known well only to those who participate regularly in it, and to a small number of persons, who for one reason or another have stumbled into it, have refused to look aside, and have pursued it to its bottom. I don’t wish to dramatize the “invisible government” but these are the persons who control domestic covert action to effect profound changes in political power and political climate in extra-legal ways and who also own and control much of Congress. The motivation and sense of entitlement to do so is an old story, and keeping within the bounds of U.S. history there is John Jay, who would become the first Chief Justice of the United States, who said in arguing against popular suffrage, “The people who own the country ought to govern it.” Covert action is one amongst many means that allow those who own this country to rule it without ostensibly violating the spirit of democracy.

These persons are united in keeping their deeds secret from the vast number of Americans even when they strongly disagree amongst themselves about the wisdom of a particular covert action like 911. Providing the details for this political perspective would take us too far afield, but it is this perspective that is entailed by the thermitic dust in the World Trade Center, one that would mobilize the American people could they only grasp it and come to terms with it. That is what people like Steven Jones, Niels Harrit, Jim Hoffman, Kevin Ryan, David Ray Griffin, Richard Gage & friends are trying to promulgate, and people like Dr. Moffett are trying to suppress.

The “Thermitic Dust” paper is a scientific paper produced by scientists using their expertise to illuminate the mechanism of 911 as a covert operation. It presents an extraordinary piece of 911 evidence that allows no wiggle room, that cannot be explained away in any other fashion. Underscoring the evidentiary significance of the thermitic dust does nothing to scant the larger geopolitical picture nor the abundance of non-scientific evidence that others have laboriously, and often very courageously, assembled. As Michael Ruppert emphasized, the world is running out of irreplaceable oil. Others have noted that United States capitalism has been in a long arc of decline since the Vietnam war, and has declined more rapidly in the wake of decisions to deindustrialize and to allow “finance capital” – parasitic practices that produce fictitious profits at the expense of the real economy – to become an ever greater part of the U.S. economy.

The ruling class of the United States responded to threats to the U.S. dollar and U.S. global hegemony by generating a pretext for war in the Middle East in an attempt to shore up both the dollar and the hegemony by obtaining a stranglehold on the oil in that area that constitutes roughly 60% of the world’s known reserves. To the rulers of the United States, the sacrifice of 3,000 civilians means nothing more than a form of involuntary conscription that they feel fully entitled to impose. The “endless war on terror” was a pronouncement by the neocons and their allies of their confidence that military might sufficed to intervene against “terrorism” wherever they felt seizure of scarce resources and geopolitical gain were to be found. The need to defend ourselves against an existential enemy of the rulers’ own creation served as the pretext to build a domestic police state for use against its own citizens should they mobilize against the rulers’ preferred allocation of resources when oil and other scarcities could no longer be profitably found to preserve the standard of living to which the people of the United States, and the advanced western democracies generally, had become accustomed.

The importance of the thermitic dust is complementary to all the other evidence assembled by others. A short non-exhaustive list of such evidence includes 1) the world-wide insider puts that used foreknowledge of 911 to make investments to rake in small fortunes; 2) the many ignored and suppressed warnings derailed from the top of the USG intelligence chain of command; 3) the well-planned and well-concealed War Games running simultaneously with the 911 operation to prevent NORAD from intercepting the airliners and – only if necessary – to provide an excuse why no interception occurred; 4) Dick Cheney’s “the order still stands” command not to shoot down the airliner that was approaching the Pentagon, that was suppressed by the 911 Commission; 5) the stories of the brave whistleblowers, including Coleen Rowley, Indira Singh, Robert Wright, and Sibel Edmonds, all of whom have been sidelined and marginalized into political insignificance; 6) the background of Mohammed Atta & friends (from Daniel Hopsicker) that reveals them as well trained and protected USG intelligence operatives, not Islamic terrorists; 7) the cover-up conspiracy too vast even to adumbrate.

I should say in closing that many if not most of even the very good 911 researchers do not understand the nature of this power nor the forces of psychological resistance to reaching an understanding of it. For example, David Ray Griffin has urged Congress to investigate 911 anew in light of this dramatic evidence, in my view apparently having failed to learn the palpable lesson from his own book, The 911 Commission Report: Omissions and Distortions, i.e., that key members Congress were actively complicit in the cover-up and that the others knew their proper role to be to stand aside in mute silence. Similarly, in his Danish TV interview, Niels Harrit said that now that this paper has revealed not merely the smoking gun, but the “loaded gun,” i.e., the unignited thermite, that he expects the authorities to start an investigation and bring the criminals to justice.

I have no such expectations. Between the hard facts of the matter and organized political actions stand both the self-deceived guardians of the psychological status quo and the deliberate agents of the invisible government. Would that the truth were simple, plain, and self-evident. Instead, we face the problem articulated by my friend Vincent Salandria, the father of the first generation of the John F. Kennedy researchers, in a 1971 address. Referring to the JFK assassination, Salandria argued that when a major covert action takes place, the truth about it is revealed:

“…at differing levels of certainty to diverse people and at different times. In this way, they [the plotters] could avert a concerted counter thrust to their illegitimate seizure of power. Democratic forces could not unite against the new illegitimate governmental apparatus because of timing. The insights of what had occurred dawned in the minds of the decent citizens at different times and with different degrees of clarity. (Vincent Salandria, False Mystery, p. 103)

Salandria believes that often in the Kennedy case, “The new rulers carefully and selectively orchestrated revelations of their bloody work, so as to gain therefrom the deference to which they felt they were entitled by their ascendancy to absolute power.” For 911, a possible example of an orchestrated revelation would be the NASA thermal survey showing ground temperatures days and weeks after 911 that were inconsistent with a normal hydrocarbon fire, boasting of their sins rather than confessing them. I don’t waste much time wondering whether there was such intent behind the NASA survey, or whether the bureaucracy unwittingly produced this early revelatory finding. The NASA survey failed to produce a collective epiphany because of how slowly information spreads, how ill-equipped most people are to use it, and because even those best equipped to understand it also know the vagaries of research and look for further evidence to confirm or disconfirm it, as have the authors of “Active Thermitic Material.” Sly boast or bureacratic release, the effect is the same.

Only now, the facts that matter politically are in, and if I expect the mainstream media to do everything in its power to ignore and distort the findings of unignited thermitic material in the WTC dust – and I do – I was still a little surprised to find the Managing Editor of OPEDNEWS doing the same thing. Perhaps I should not have been.

Author’s Bio: I am a retired forensic psychologist living in Los Angeles with enough time on my hands to have spent the past few years studying the deeds whose perpetrators pejoratively deride the correct analysis of which as “conspiracy theories,” i.e., USG intelligence community domestic covert operations – fascist politics by unconventional means. A professor of analytic philosophy in a former career, I no longer embrace the Lotus Land argument that if you can work on your abs, then it isn’t fascism.


Jet fuel theory is implausible

From the government tritium report: www.llnl.gov/tid/lof/documents/pdf/241096.pdf   “Study of Traces of Tritium at the World Trade Center” by T.M. Semkow, R.S. Hafner, P.P Parekh, G.J. Wozniak, D.K. Haines, L. Husain, R.L. Rabun, P.G. Williams (radionuclides):

10,000 gallons of fuel are estimated to have been on each plane before it crashed into the towers.

(Their ref: Associated Press. Engineers study WTC collapse. New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com, 4/30/2002.)

Also Wikipedia, which uses the reference: 2.^ “NIST NCSTAR1-5: Reconstruction of the Fires in the World Trade Center Towers” (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology. October 2005. http://wtc.nist.gov/NISTNCSTAR1-5.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-25.    (dead link)

Density of kerosene is 0.81715 kg/L or 817.15 kg/m^3

Therefore, there was 30,932 kg of jet fuel on each plane or 30.9 tonnes of jet fuel on each plane.

An American ton is 2000 pounds.

This source says each Twin Tower weighed 500,000 t (American tons presumably). http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/jom/0112/eagar/eagar-0112.html

Each tower weighed after the conversion: 1,000,000,000 pounds = 453,592 metric tonnes.

So a total of 61.8 tonnes of fuel (10,000 gallons estimated to be on each plane or 20,000 gallons in total) caused the total destruction of three towers including the WTC Building 7 (weight=?) and the Twin towers that weighed 907,184 metric tonnes as well as the near-total destruction of four other towers (WTC Buildings 3, 4, 5, 6).

The ratio of weight of jet fuel to Twin Tower buildings’ weight is taking into account only the weight of the Twin Towers and does not include the weight of other buildings:  61.8 to 907,184  is 1 to 0.000068122894584 or  1 to 14,679  or as a percentage is 0.0068123%.

Note: this doesn’t take into account the weight of the other five WTC buildings.

A final word on problems with the fire theory

ABOVE: http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/wtc1_fire.html

COMMENT: Government investigators claim that the fire that was supposedly caused by the kerosene from the plane catching fire burned the steel of the central core and the trusses, weakening these structures and causing them to buckle and bow, finally giving way and causing the tower to topple. They claim the fire not only weakened the steel core in the section of the tower that was at the same level as the plane collision but also the steel core in sections that were not affected by the plane strike, that is, the core all along the whole length of the tower, from the impact level to the basement.