Israel’s known use of chemical and biological weapons: typhoid, cholera and dysentery
Parts of the account below are adapted from Palestine Land Society: Traces of Poison: Israel’s Dark History Revealed (by Salman Abu Sitta, Ahram Weekly, Cairo, February 27-March 5, 2003)
Despite Israel’s frequent warnings about Syria and Iran’s alleged but unproven WMD to the international community, it is Israel that has the largest collection of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East.
Israel has even used these weapons. Below is shown Israel’s biowarfare on the residents and soldiers of Palestine, Syria and Egypt.
The biowarfare started even before Israel became a nation.
Zionists contaminate the water supply of the city of Acre
Acre Aqueduct that fed the city of Acre with water was contaminated with typhoid organisms that were injected by Zionists on May, 1948. (Modified map shown here)
Zionists targeted Acre by first showering it with mortar bombs. Then they poisoned the city’s water supply by injecting typhoid-causing microorganisms into the aqueduct that supplied the city its drinking water. This point of injection was intermediate between the source, located at a village called El Kabiri, some 10 km away to the north, and Acre, the target city. Between these points, the aqueduct passed through Zionist settlements, giving Zionists plenty of chances to access the aqueduct.
This information came to light thanks to the files of the Red Cross; these files became available in the late 1990s. The Red Cross reports describe a typhoid epidemic which hit the population of Acre in 1948.
- There were 70 Palestinian sufferers of the typhoid epidemic in Acre
- The typhoid infection came from the water supply
- Red Cross advised that a substitute water supply be built to avoid the water from the aqueduct because the aqueduct’s water was contaminated with typhoid organisms
- It was advised that chlorine be applied to drinking water before consumption to combat the contamination
- Immunization against typhoid of the general population would be started to combat the epidemic
- Movement of people from this region to other areas was controlled to prevent the spread of typhoid to other areas
- Non-Palestinian victims of typhoid infection included 55 British soldiers (125 sufferers altogether).
- This was the first time such an epidemic occurred in Palestine’s history according to the British
- The British denied the outbreak was due to unhygienic conditions, as the Israelis claimed it was
Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness. The bacteria are deposited in water or food by a human carrier and are then spread to other people in the area. Typhoid Fever Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Vaccine – WebMD
– Zionists intensified their bombing of Palestinian areas after the typhoid epidemic struck and while the Palestinian residents of Acre were in the middle of a typhoid epidemic.
– Some of the Palestinians who were caught by soldiers were forced to drink cyanide-laced drinks.
– Zionists looted homes of Palestinians.
– Zionists murdered about 100 Arab civilians in Acre, by cyanide, shooting etc.
– Rapes of Palestinian women were committed by Zionists during this period. Rapes were easier to carry out because many men had been detained by the Israelis or were away resisting the Zionists. (The rapes were probably done to terrorize the residents and make them leave the area.)
– Men were arbitrarily sent to concentration camps even though they weren’t soldiers. This left many homes in Acre unguarded and many people defenseless against the violence of Zionist attackers.
– Water and electricity were cut off to Acre.
The Palestinian city ended up collapsing, all the inhabitants left, and the city was occupied by Zionists.
Conclusion: The typhoid infection was done to destabilize the region, creating chaotic conditions, and weakening the resistance to Zionists when they started their campaign of bombing, harassment, arbitrary detention, murder, rape, sabotage and other kinds of terror against the Palestinian residents of Acre.
It can be deduced that the typhoid contamination of the Acre residents’ water supply was part of an overall program of the Zionists to de-populate Palestinian areas of Palestinian residents. Later, Zionists would move into the areas they had de-populated.
Campaign to spread typhoid and dysentery to Gaza residents and soldiers
Zionists struck again with more biowarfare two weeks after the Palestinian city of Acre fell–this time in Gaza.
Dysentery is an intestinal inflammation, especially in the colon, that can lead to severe diarrhea with mucus or blood in the feces. Medical News Today
Sufferers of dystentery experience bloody diarrhea.
How the biowarfare was discovered and prevented
Jewish saboteurs were caught redhanded with water bottles containing contaminated water near the water supply that delivered water to the army and civilians in that area. On later examination, the bottles of water were found to contain typhoid and dysentery-causing microbes. The people caught were part of a team of twenty whose mission it was to contaminate the water supply of Gaza in order to cause an outbreak of disease in the soldiers in the army stationed nearby and the residents of Gaza.
Report on the incident to the U.N.
A Palestinian committee submitted a report to the United Nations in which they outlined this attack and the suspicion that Jews were waging a genocidal war against the Arabs, using germ warfare. In support of this claim, the report details another biowarfare incident: the cholera attack on Egyptian and Syrian people in 1947/1948.
Cholera attacks on Egyptians and Syrians of 1947/48
Cholera: an infectious and often fatal bacterial disease of the small intestine, typically contracted from infected water supplies and causing severe vomiting and diarrhea.
Background of the contamination incident
In 1947, a UN delegation was in Palestine and other Arab nations to propose partitioning Palestine to give to some of the Palestinians’ land to the Jews. Out of the Arab nations, Egypt and Syria were the strongest resisters of this partitioning. Egypt and Syria had even prepared a military response to the proposed partitioning by training army resistance units.
Dr. W. Seth Carus, a researcher at the Center for Counterproliferation Research at the National Defense University based in Washington, DC, writes in a report “Bioterrorism and Biocrimes: The Illicit Use of Biological Agents since 1900” (February 2001) about ‘Case 1947-01: “Zionist” Terrorists 1947-1948‘. In this case report:
High death toll from cholera in Egypt
• 10,262 people died of cholera in Egypt (last cases were in January 1948)
• A smaller outbreak occurred in Syria, near the border with Palestine: 18 out of 44 people with cholera died. In response, the Syrian army cordoned off the area of the epidemic to limit the spread of the infection. Several Zionist agents were arrested for introducing the cholera infection; it was reported the army was their target.
• The allegation that the Zionists had a campaign to infect residents of Egypt and Syria with cholera was supported by the testimony of Rachel Katzman, the sister of one of the perpetrators who was caught (Horeen). Horeen’s sister said she met her brother’s commander, and he confirmed to her that the Zionists had contaminated wells used by Gaza residents with cholera organisms.
• Uri Milstein, a military historian and a far-right Zionist, confirms the deliberate contamination of the water supply to Acre residents with typhoid organisms in an email to a peace activist. In the email, he writes that the operation was called “Shlach Lachmecha” (“Donate your bread”). “Donate your bread” is a Hebrew saying that you should be generous because one day, you will profit from it.
Ben Gurion – Father of Israel’s chemical and biowarfare programs
Ben Gurion, PM of Israel, wrote in 1948 in a letter to a Jewish agent in Europe to recruit East European Jewish scientists, so that Zionists could:
“either increase [our] capacity to kill masses or to cure masses; both are important”.
Israel’s doctrine of ethnic cleansing
Ben Gurion’s doctrine towards the Palestinians was to cleanse them ethnically through:
1) Open massacres: shooting and similar attacks that would decrease their population
2) Expulsion: driving the Palestinians to leave their homes through harassment campaigns
3) Extermination by covert means: this would include the use of biowarfare
Ben Gurion and his genocidal plans for Palestinians have been researched by Avner Cohen, a senior fellow at the Center for International and Security Studies, and a researcher at the Program on Security and Disarmaments at the University of Maryland.
In a paper on Israel’s chemical and biological weapons, which was published in the Non-Proliferation Review (2001), Cohen describes the following:
• Gurion gathered experts in microbiology:
Ernst David Bergmann, Avraham Marcus (Marek) Klingberg (from the Red Army) and the brothers Aharon and Ephraim Katachalsky (Katzir) were recruited. They formed the Science Corps during the British Mandate period of the Middle East, before Israel was established. These individuals were probably responsible for the plots to create the epidemics described above.
• A new unit of biological research was formed called HEMED in 1948, of which Katachalsky was appointed the head: A research institute was built in Rehovot called “Weizmann Institute”. Within HEMED was a subunit called HEMED BEIT. This unit was devoted to the development of biological weapons. It operated as a branch of the Israeli Army. Alexander Keynan, a microbiologist from the medical school at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, was the head of this unit.
Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR)
Israel Institute for Biological Research is established
Palestinian Al-Taji family’s mansion near Nes Ziona; it was built in a citrus grove.
When the villages in Al-Nakba became depopulated of their Palestinian inhabitants by 1948, Jewish immigrants moved into the vacant houses. One large mansion, belonging to the Al Taji family, situated within an orange grove, west of Nes Ziona, became the home of the Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR). This institution was the destination for the cargo of chemicals, including chemicals to make sarin gas, of the Israeli plane that crashed in Schiphol in 1992. The institute’s building was expanded, with the building of more structures, and security installations were erected around the building.
Two fronts: a clean one and a dirty one
The Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) has two fronts: a clean one and a dirty one. The clean one produces “clean” research papers, and the dirty one conducts research on biological weapons within the IIBR. This research center is controlled by Israel’s Ministry of Defense.
Weapons with a non-conventional capability
In 1955, Gurion rushed through a project to develop weapons that had a “non-conventional capability”. He wanted to have these “non-conventional weapons” ready for use by the time the Suez Tripartite Aggression (Suez Crisis) was to take place, in 1956. This incident was the invasion of Egypt by the three nations of Israel, UK and France, an action that was initiated over a dispute about rights to use the Suez Canal, the only direct waterway between the Red Sea and Mediterranean. The aim of this attack was to regain the West’s control of the Suez Canal and remove President Nasser from power.
If the campaign to regain rights to use the canal failed, Gurion wanted the option of bombing Egypt, using bioweapons as well as conventional weapons.
On top of this, in 1956, Gurion signed an agreement with France to build nuclear weapons. Therefore, 1956 can be said to be the start date of Israel’s nuclear program.
Where is the Israel Institute of Biological Research?
In the 1930s, the wealthy Palestinian family of Al-Taji Al-Farouki purchased land near Nes Ziona and built a citrus grove. The citrus farm produced a bountiful crop: hundreds of thousands of boxes of Jaffa oranges were exported to Europe.
With the money from the citrus business, Shukri Al-Taji built a mansion on top of a hill. He also built a mosque nearby. In addition, his cousin built a residential compound nearby that consisted of several buildings.
The arches at the entrance of Al Taji mansion, now the home of the Israel Institute for Biological Research
Shukri Al-Taji’s home became the site of the IIBR. The institute’s main entrance is the marbled entrance of Shukri’s mansion. Other buildings of the Al-Taji family were expropriated by the Israelis: the mosque became a synagogue, and the cousin’s house became a mental hospital. Ten years later, Shukri died heartbroken in Jordan, where he migrated to after his house had been taken over by the Israelis.
Chasing the culprits of germ warfare
Sara Leibovitz-Dar, an investigative journalist whose parents came from Lithuania, has investigated the Gaza and Acre poisonings and the “shooting down” of a Libyan civil airplane over Lockerbie.
Uri Milstein, a rightwing Israeli military historian, identified the names of the officers involved in the biological warfare against the Palestinians, and this information was included in Leibovitz-Dar’s report, which was published in August, 1993, under the title “Microbes in State Service“.
Naeim Giladi, an Iraqi Jew, was lured to Israel by Mossad agents in the early 1950s. While working in Israel, he experienced the caste system of Israel, where Mizrahim (Jews from Arab countries) were treated as second class citizens by Ashkenazis.
He also found out about the bacteriological warfare against the Arabs.
“Jewish forces would empty Arab villages of their population often by threats, sometimes by gunning down a half-dozen young men so that the Arabs could not return. The Israelis put typhus [sic] and dysentery bacteria in the water wells to prevent the refugees from returning”. [The Link, Vol. 31 Issue 2, April-May 1998].
A Mossad agent, Victor Ostrovsky, claims that vivisection experiments involving the testing of lethal chemical and biowarfare agents were done on Arab prisoners, who had been brought to the IIBR compound for this purpose.
A plane crash spilling the secrets of Israel’s chemical and biological weapons programs
In 1992, El Al Flight 1862 crashed into a high-rise apartment in Bijlmer (Bijlmermeer) shortly after leaving Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport. It revealed a cargo of chemicals used in chemical weapons as well as a suspected cargo of radiological substances used to make nuclear weapons.
• It was carrying 114 tons of freight in total
• 47 people were killed it is estimated (more may have been killed as there were many undocumented migrants living in the apartment complex.
• 3,000 Dutch residents were affected by exposure to hazardous cargo on the plane, including chemicals and radioactive substances
• Symptoms and illnesses included rashes, difficulty breathing, nervous disorders and cancer.
• Initially, the Dutch and Israeli governments lied about the cargo, saying it comprised just perfume and flowers.
A science editor at a Dutch daily newspaper, Karel Knip, pursued the facts for several years. Much of the information about the plane crash and cargo has become available due to his efforts.
Schiphol Airport from where the plane departed; block of flats in Bijlmermeer on fire
Large cargo of sarin chemicals
Honest John warhead cutaway, showing M139 Sarin bomblets (photo c. 1960).
The M134 bomblet was designed for the M190 Honest John rocket warhead. The bomblets carried sarin nerve agent and when the missile was fired the bomblets were released 5,000 feet above their target. When the time came for the sub-munitions to be released a mechanical time fuze would cut the warhead’s skin and the bomblets were released. The weapon could effectively saturate an area 1,000 meters in diameter with chemical agent. WikiVisually
Dutch journalist’s report on El Al plane crash
The debris of the El Al plane that crashed
The apartment block that was hit by the Israeli plane
El Al airlines routes
Seven years after the plane crash, Knip published a report:
• The plane carried 50 gallons of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), the main chemical used to make sarin (a substance that is 20 times more lethal than cyanide). It is usually delivered in aerosolized form.
• The shipment of chemicals on El Al came from Solkatronic Chemicals of Morrisville, Pennsylvania. Solkatronic Chemicals was a subsidiary of Solvay, a Belgian company, a few of whose directors and a major shareholder had links to child abuse networks. Solvay is itself a member of the Belgian branch of “Les Holdings”, a supranational financial entity that serves the same people who run child abuse networks that cater to the elite of Europe.
• The chemicals’ destination was Israel Institute for Biological Research in Nes Ziona.
• The shipment had an export license from the US Department of Commerce
• The shipment of such chemicals is contrary to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The U.S. is a party to this treaty. Israel has signed but not ratified this treaty.
• Knip was able to identify 140 Israeli scientists involved in biological weapons (BW) research. This is probably a minimum number; many more scientists are believed to be doing research there.
BLU-80/B Bigeye binary chemical munition dispenser would have carried 180 pounds of VX nerve agent. Goleta Air and Space Museum
The symptoms and signs of sarin poisoning
Shells that contain sarin can look like these
Three years after the plane crash, in 1995, the Japanese subway sarin gas attack occurred. #sarintokyo #tokyo #tokyosubway
1995 Tokyo Subway sarin gas attack
In March 1995, Tokyo suffered a subway sarin attack. The attack was perpetrated by a religious movement Aum Shinrikyo. The perpetrators released sarin, a colorless, odorless liquid, by puncturing plastic bags of the toxin with the point of a vinyl umbrella, killing 12 people, injuring 50, and affecting over 1,000 people who were on the trains of the morning rush hour and were standing on nearby platforms.
Japanese sarin gas attack in 1995. This occurred 3 years after the El Al plane crash, an event that revealed a cargo of sarin chemicals.
The gas bags of sarin in the Tokyo subway attack were punctured using the sharp spike of the tip of a vinyl umbrella.
Israel’s collaboration with other nations’ agencies and institutes
• IIBR has strong links with:
– Walter Reed Army Institute (USA)
– Uniformed Services University (Bethesda, Maryland, USA)
– US Army Edgewood Chemical and Biological Weapons Center (Edgewood, Maryland; centers are also in Arkansas and Illinois)
– University of Utah
The cooperation between the Israeli research center and U.S. centers suggests the possibility that the U.S. clandestinely performs research on chemical and biological weapons by using the Israel institute as a substitute research center. Therefore, this might be one of the reasons the U.S. collaborates with the IIBR.
Three categories of research at the Israeli institute: diseases, toxins, convulsants
Knip identified three categories of biological weapons (BW) research at the IIBR:
1. Diseases: Yersinia pestis (plague), Rickettsia species (typhus), Rabies, West Nile virus, Leptospira species (e.g. Weil’s disease), Cryptococcus neoformans (a yeast), Sindbis virus, Newcastle disease (birds), African Swine fever, Coxiella burnetti (Q fever), Western Equine encephalomyelitis, Semliki Forest virus, Brucella abortus (brucellosis), Pasteurella multocida (fowl cholera), Lassa virus, EMC (encephalomyocarditis), Legionella, Rift Valley fever, Marek’s disease (poultry), Coccidioides immitis (fungus)
2. Toxins: Elatericin, Saxitoxin, Tetrodotoxin, Pilocarpine-derivatives, Wasp venom, Elatericin-derivatives, Brevetoxin, SEB (Staphylococcus enterotoxin B), Scorpion venom, Cobra venom SEA (Staph.enterotoxin A), Cholera toxin, Bungarotoxin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, exotoxin A, Shiga Toxin, Conotoxin, Diphtheria toxin
3. Convulsants: Bradykinin, Psychotropic substances, Cannabis (hashish), Phencyclidine (hallucinogen), Chlorpromazine (anti-psychoticum), Cannabis-derivatives (tetrahydrocannabinol), Fentanyl (narcoticum), QNB-derivatives (hallucinogen), Enkephalin, Endorphin, Morphine, Etonitazen, Phencyclidine derivatives, Benzodiazepine derivatives (convulsants), Heroin, Cannabis derivatives (amino-cannabinoids)
Toxin research more popular at the Israeli institute because toxins are more deadly than microbes
Over the decades, research in this institute has moved from viruses and bacteria to toxins because toxins are more deadly.
Nerve gases used in chemical weapons that have been researched include tabun, soman, sarin, VX, cyclo-sarin, RVX and amiton.
Knip discovered close cooperation between IIBR and the British-American biological weapon program. These joint programs deal research into weapons that can spread smallpox, fungal diseases and Legionnaires disease.
IIBR also researches plant poison called elate-ricin.
A recent trend in BW research at the IIBR is the development of incapacitants that paralyze and disorient. Most of these incapacitants have antidotes. These have been used against Palestinians in the Intifada.
There is collaboration in biological weapon research between Israel and Germany and Holland.
Defensive research a cover for research for chemical and biological offensive weapons
Collaboration with the US is outlined in the Congress report, “Joint Medical, Biological and Nuclear Defence Research Programs”. Under the guise of doing research to find antidotes, researchers also work on identifying the poison itself. The director of IIBR as of 2006, Dr. Avigdor Shafferman, is a frequent contributor to the program.
Search for an antidote only a cover
Monitoring organizations turn a blind eye to CW and BW research in Israel
Organizations that are supposed to monitor and report on CW and BW research around the world, in order to prevent the proliferation of such weapons, in general, ignore the research done in Israel’s centers of CW and BW research. One such organization that turns a blind eye is The Preparatory Commission for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), in The Hague.
This happens despite the fact that Israeli researchers work at this organization. Their work in this organization includes guiding the organization on methods for detecting chemical weapons. In contrast, Middle Eastern and other nations that have an adversarial relationship with Israel are frequently the focus of attention of these organizations, even though little or no proof exists that they are actively engaged in conducting such research.
Binary munitions that deliver chemicals such as VX and sarin; note that this binary method is only used for munitions delivery of these chemicals and not for manual application of the poisons. North Korea has been accused of using a female Vietnamese woman to apply VX poison to a North Korean national using the binary method at Malaysia’s Kuala Lumpur International Airport. However, no literature exists showing how a manual application of VX toxin can be safely done by perpetrators.
Israel is made the exception
Even though Israeli researchers R. Barak (IIBR), A. Lorber (CHEMO Solutions), and Z. Boger (Rotem Industries) have proposed methods to detect chemical warfare agents, no international body is willing to use these same methods to detect chemical weapons in Israel’s case.
CW and BW monitoring methods available
Even though mechanisms to monitor BW and CW research is available, no one in the US or the West seems interested in inspecting Israel Institute of Biological Research. A former research has said that the institute tests every chemical and biological weapon known to man there.
Double standards applied to Israel
Even though Americans’ research is often criticized as contravening the rules of CWC and BWC, Israel’s research is never the target of the same criticism. (Israel has signed the CWC but not ratified it, and has not signed the BWC.):
– Professor Keith Yamamoto (University of California) and Dr Jonathan King (MIT) have criticized the American government claims that the the research into bioweapons is defensive, arguing that attempting to modify toxins (as IIBR does) can hardly be considered “defensive” research. Therefore similar research done at the IIBR, to modify toxins, cannot be considered defensive research. In addition, Americans and Israelis share their research on CW and BW.
More victims of Israel’s chemical and biological warfare
Nerve gas, defoliants, phosphorus shells used on crops, protestors, and prisoners during peacetime, and on combatants and civilians during wartime
There are many cases of nerve gas and other chemical/biological weapons being used by the Israelis on Palestinians and other Arabs:
* Defoliants causing crop failure: Chemical defoliants used on Palestinian crops to cause crop failure. This happened on 4 occasions: 1) in Ain Al-Beida in 1968, 2) Aqraba in 1972, 3) Mejdel Beni Fadil in 1978 and 4) Negev in 2002.
* Chemical weapons (hydrogen cyanide and other nerve agents): In the 1982 war on Lebanon, it is claimed that chemical weapons, including hydrogen cyanide and other nerve gas agents, as well as phosphorus shells (white phosphorus), were used by Israel against Lebanese combatants and civilians.
* Lethal gas against prisoners: Lethal gas was used against Palestinian and Lebanese prisoners.
*Incapacitants were used against Palestinians in Khan Younis (Gaza) in February 2001:
“First, the victims thought it was tear gas. It had a faint odour like mint. It smelled “like sugar”, one victim reported. It changed colour “like a rainbow”. Fifteen minutes later, the victim felt that his “stomach was torn apart, with burning sensation in [his] chest, could not breathe”. Soon convulsions started. The victim would jump up and down, left and right, thrashing limbs around, with a kind of hysteria. Some victims were unconscious. The victim would vomit incessantly and then pain would return. This would go on for days or, for some, weeks.”
- This event is well-documented. The victims were filmed by American filmmaker James Longley. He compiled a 19-page document containing interviews with 19 gassing victims, and doctors and nurses.
- These incapacitants were repeatedly used in Al-Birch, Nablus, and West Bank, and Gaza.
- The US government has not condemned the gassing and simply ignored it even though Suha Arafat (Yasser Arafat’s wife) drew attention to the gassing by Israelis in 1999 at a meeting at which Hillary Clinton was present.
Long term effects may include cancer
The long term effects of nerve agents and toxins are unknown. It is speculated that the long term effects of these nerve agents include cancer.
“On 3 February, 2003, Dr Khamis Al-Najjar, director of Cancer Research Centre of the Ministry of Health in Ramallah reported an alarming increase in cancer cases, especially among women and children. The report covers the period 1995-2000 and shows 3,646 cases, with more than half among females. The cases in Gaza are more than the West Bank. The report, citing the rate of increase, predicts that cases will triple in the near future.”
Cumulative exposure to toxins may increase risk of cancer
The cumulative effects of the Israelis using toxins on Palestinians may be behind the increased incidence of cancer cases among Palestinians.
The use of chemical and biological weapons by the Israelis on Palestinian populations is speculated to be part of an Israeli population reduction campaign aimed at the Palestinians. It has been noted that Israelis have long been paranoid about the Palestinians’ high multiplication rates.
Plot to poison Hamas leader
It was reported that Mossad tried to assassinate a senior operative in Hamas, Khaled Mash’al, in Jordan in 1997.
The agents were caught by Jordanian police who were near the site of the alleged poisoning, and Israel was ordered to supply an antidote.
It is speculated that the toxin that was allegedly used was Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). It can be applied to the victim through a gun from up to 50 meters away. (Gun’s range is 50 meters.)
Was this poisoning fake?
However, there are suspicions that the poisoning was a pre-planned plot and was faked, with Mash’al a willing participant in the conspiracy. According to this conspiracy theory, Israelis would pretend to poison Mash’al. The purpose of the fake poisoning was to boost his credentials as an anti-Zionist figure, so that he could more easily insinuate himself into the leadership of Hamas. Once he became the leader, he would act as an agent of the Israelis, the aim of the plot.
Was the assassination attempt a ruse to trick the Palestinians into trusting Mash’al? Was Mash’al an agent of the Israelis?
Was a radiological substance used to kill Arafat?
There is forensic evidence that PLO chairman Yasser Arafat was killed with polonium-210. Since polonium is rare, sufficient quantities of the radioactive substance to kill someone needs to be made in a nuclear reactor. This points to a nation that has the ability to manufacture polonium as the culprit. It looks as if Arafat’s assassination was done by a government that has the ability to make nuclear weapons and is not monitored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Polonium-210 is also implicated in the death of Alexander Litvinenko (see below).
Left: Polonium in its ore form. Polonium has got several isotopes. Polonium-210 is highly radioactive. The half-life is 138 days.
Points supporting radiological poisoning of Arafat:
A Swiss institute that examined Arafat’s hair, saliva, urine, and blood samples that were taken from his belongings said that the samples showed elevated levels of polonium-120.
In 2012 (eight years after his death in 2004), another toxicological examination, this time of his bones and other tissues that were exhumed, showed high levels of polonium:
‘fragments of bones taken from his left ribs and pelvis as well as remnants of tissue from the abdominal cavity and grave soil, showed “unexpectedly high” activity of polonium-210.‘
The level of polonium was 18x higher than normal. This examination was done by a Swiss team that was part of a group that held an enquiry into his death.
‘In August last year , French prosecutors opened a murder inquiry into Arafat’s death. In November , Arafat’s corpse was exhumed from its mausoleum in Ramallah in the presence of three international teams of scientists: the Swiss team, a French team that was part of the Paris judicial investigation and a Russian team.’
David Barclay, a British forensic scientist who had studied the 2008 report of the exhumed remains, told al-Jazeera:
“The report contains strong evidence, in my view conclusive evidence, that there’s at least 18 times the level of polonium in Arafat’s exhumed body than there should be … I would point to him being given a fatal dose. I don’t think there’s any doubt at all.”
(Above adapted from The Guardian)
How the alleged poisoning could have been done
“Arafat died on 11 November 2004. He had been transferred there from his headquarters in the West Bank after his health deteriorated over weeks, beginning with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea around four hours after eating dinner on 12 October.” The Guardian
The following is from The Guardian:
Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the PLO
Swiss scientists found levels of polonium 18 times higher than normal in first forensic tests on former Palestinian leader’s body.
The Swiss scientists who tested Arafat’s remains after the exhumation of his body in November 2012 discovered levels of polonium at least 18 times higher than usual in Arafat’s ribs, pelvis and in soil that absorbed his bodily fluids …
The Swiss report said … the results “moderately support the proposition that the death was the consequence of poisoning with polonium-210”.
Suha Arafat said the evidence in the report suggested that her then healthy 75-year-old husband, who died in 2004 four weeks after he first fell ill following a meal, was almost certainly murdered by poisoning …
David Barclay, a British forensic scientist who had studied the report, told al-Jazeera: “The report contains strong evidence, in my view conclusive evidence, that there’s at least 18 times the level of polonium in Arafat’s exhumed body than there should be.”
He said the report represented “a smoking gun”. Barclay said … “I would point to him being given a fatal dose. I don’t think there’s any doubt at all.”
The Israeli government, however, dismissed the report. “The Swiss findings are not conclusive,” said Yigal Palmor, a foreign ministry spokesman.
“Even if they did find traces of polonium that could indicate poisoning, there’s no evidence of how that poisoning occurred.” …
Dov Weissglass, a former aide to Ariel Sharon, the Israeli prime minister at the time of Arafat’s death, also denied Israeli involvement …
“By the end of 2004, we had no interest in harming him. By then, Arafat was marginalised, his control over Palestinian life was minimal. So there was no logic, no reason.”
Danny Rubinstein, a journalist and author of a book about Arafat, had a different memory of events. In the weeks and months before Arafat’s death, he said, people in Sharon’s inner circle talked constantly about how to get rid of him …
Arafat died in a French military hospital on 11 November 2004. He had been transferred there from his headquarters in the West Bank after his health deteriorated over weeks, beginning with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea around four hours after eating dinner on 12 October. French doctors have said he died of a massive stroke and had suffered from a blood condition known as disseminated intravascular coagulation, or DIC. But the records were inconclusive about what brought about the DIC. No autopsy was carried out …
Al-Jazeera said it was given access to a duffel bag of Arafat’s personal effects by his widow, which it passed to a Swiss institute. Swiss toxicological tests on those samples including hair from a hat, saliva from a toothbrush, urine droplets on underpants and blood on a hospital hat found that the belongings had elevated traces of polonium-210, the lethal substance used to kill the Russian dissident Alexander Litvinenko.
The Swiss institute said Arafat’s bones would have to be tested to get a clearer answer, warning that polonium decayed fast and an autopsy needed to be done quickly. In August last year, French prosecutors opened a murder inquiry into Arafat’s death. In November, Arafat’s corpse was exhumed from its mausoleum in Ramallah in the presence of three international teams of scientists: the Swiss team, a French team that was part of the Paris judicial investigation and a Russian team.
The Swiss team’s report states that they carried out toxicological tests on Arafat’s “almost skeletonised body along with residues from his shroud”. The samples, including fragments of bones taken from his left ribs and pelvis as well as remnants of tissue from the abdominal cavity and grave soil, showed “unexpectedly high” activity of polonium-210.
Alexander Litvinenko – a false flag radiological poisoning?
Russian former FSB spy Litvinenko died of polonium-210 poisoning in 2006. As this radioactive poison is usually made in a nuclear reactor, a state agency of a nation that makes nuclear weapons would probably be behind the poisoning. This narrows the list of possible suspects down. Polonium is also a very expensive poison. It has been estimated that the polonium that killed Litvinenko cost $10 million.
• Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84. It is a rare and highly radioactive metal with no stable isotopes.
• Due to the short half-life of all its isotopes, its natural occurrence is limited to tiny traces of the fleeting polonium-210 (with a half-life of 138 days) in uranium ores.
• Today, polonium is usually produced in milligram quantities by the neutron irradiation of bismuth.
• Polonium was discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie, when it was extracted from uranium ore and identified solely by its strong radioactivity: it was the first element to be so discovered.
• Polonium has few applications, and those are related to its radioactivity: heaters in space probes, antistatic devices, and sources of neutrons and alpha particles.
• Polonium’s intense radioactivity makes it dangerously toxic.
Adapted from Wikipedia
Polonium for industrial uses is usually made in a nuclear reactor. On the right is a small sheet of polonium.
Where do we go from here? Israel’s disregard for conventions and prohibitions
Israel and Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons Conventions
Israel has signed but not ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the treaty that bans the use, development and proliferation of chemical weapons. Israel has not signed the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC).
Israel’s lack of recognition of international statutes that prohibit occupation
Israel does not recognize the validity of the Fourth Geneva Convention on Occupied Palestinian Territories of the West Bank and Gaza.
One article of the convention states:
“The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.”
Israel has been slowly occupying Palestinian territory over the years to the point where now most of Palestine is occupied by Israelis.
The green parts that are occupied by Palestinians; the white parts by Israelis.
Israel disregards prohibitions against causing injury and harm to civilians
Israel disregards the Geneva Convention article of law that stipulates that:
‘[To] willingly cause [civilians] great suffering or serious injury to body or health” is a “grave breach”, which, according to Article-146, requires all High Contracting Parties to “search for persons alleged to have committed or to have ordered to commit such grave breaches” and must “bring such person regardless of their nationality before their own courts”.’
Israel violates poisonous gas and chemical weapons codes
Other conventions that Israel has violated include the Geneva Protocol of 1925 on Poisonous Gas, and the 1993 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons.
Discrimination in the application of this law by the U.N.
Despite this, the U.N. dispatches hundreds of inspectors to inspect homes and workshops in Iraq but sends none to Israel.
U.S. a member of the U.N. Security Council ignores Israel’s violations
Even though Israel violates the conventions set by the U.N. against the use and development of CW and BW, the U.S. has never condemned Israel, and in fact, has blocked other nations from condemning Israel, and continues to conduct research into CW and BW with Israel, and allows the transfer of chemicals used in CW and BW research to Israel. In addition, the US gives Israel large amounts of foreign aid, the largest amount to any nation.
Furthermore, the U.S. frequently condemns North Korea over its alleged CW and BW programs, although no proof has ever been supplied by any nation for these programs’ existence. The Malaysian airport criminal case is still undergoing (April, 2017). The only claims that North Korea has these programs point to anonymous sources and unconfirmed sources within the South Korean intelligence agency. Many reports that allege North Korea is active in manufacturing and proliferating CW and BW emanate from Israeli sources (see Israel’s propaganda campaign section on this page).
*CW-chemical weapon; BW-biological weapon; CBW-chemical and biological weapons
Israel’s PM Benjamin Netanyahu on the left and Dimona on the right. Netanyahu frequently speaks about Iran and nuclear weapons while he never mentions the fact that Israel’s nuclear program, estimated to have produced hundreds of nuclear weapons, has already been exposed to the world by Mordechai Vanunu, a former worker at Dimona. Nor does he speak about Israel’s chemical and biological weapons.
Parts of the above are adapted from Palestine Land Society: Traces of Poison: Israel’s Dark History Revealed (by Salman Abu Sitta, Ahram Weekly, Cairo, February 27-March 5, 2003)
Bombing in Yemen – a possible tactical nuke used
Was a nuclear bomb used on Noqom Mountain, Yemen?
VIDEO: Was A Fission Bomb Used On Noqom Mountain ArchiveOrg
A video of the bombing of Noqom Mountain by the US-backed Saudi forces on October 11, 2015. US planes refuel Saudi Arabia and assist them in other ways in its attacks on Yemen. Noqom Mountain overlooks Sanaa, the capital, and a highly populated, dense residential area. It is under Houthis control. Explosions continued for a very long time and caused most families to leave their homes. Several children are reported missing.
Did Saudi Arabia nuke Yemen? Mushroom cloud video
Noqom Mountain airstrike
Pictures of Yemen’s terrible destruction after bombing
The man who shot the second of the explosions, Abdul Hamed, told Storyful about the footage:
“Yes, I was walking at the garden of my home to enter the house, as I saw the smoke from the first Saudi Strike. I wanted to film it before entering my home to hide from the following air strikes. As I just started filming, I saw a new fire, I kept filming as I didn’t expected the fire to expand like that. As I started to feel the heat of the bomb I had to run a way. As I was running a way the window glasses was falling down around me. From the tremendous pressure all the house ‘ windows fall down. I was so worried about my wife and our baby as she is pregnant. Someone has to stop those crazy people.”
Tactical nukes used in Syria, Ukraine & Yemen 2016