Davy Crockett nuke
One of the early tactical nukes or mini-nukes was the Davy Crockett. Development started in the late 1950s.
Davy Crockett nuclear gun. 1961 Wikipedia
It was a gun-type nuke. The size of the explosion was only 10 tons of TNT.
Davy Crockett recoilless gun
Davy Crockett nuclear gun
Davy Crockett nuke test
VIDEO: M388 Nuclear bomb testing – Davy Crockett Youtube
The explosion showed mainly a smoke plume with little disturbance to the surface.
Testing the Davy Crockett
Lightest nuclear warhead made by the USA
Warhead of the Davy Crockett. U.S. officials examine a M-388 Davy Crockett nuclear weapon. It used one of the smallest nuclear warheads ever developed by the United States. It could fit into a footlocker. Wikipedia
The lightest nuclear warhead ever acknowledged to have been manufactured by the U.S. is the W54, which was used in both the Davy Crockett 120 mm recoilless rifle-launched warhead and the backpack-carried version called the Mk-54 SADM (Special Atomic Demolition Munition). The bare warhead package was an 11 in by 16 in (28 cm by 41 cm, small enough to fit in a footlocker-sized container) cylinder that weighed 51 lbs (23 kg). Wikipedia
- Dimensions: 11 x 16 inches (28 x 41cm)
- Weight: 51 lbs (23 kg)
Comparison with Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs
Hiroshima was 15 kilotons (15,000,000 kg TNT). Nagasaki was 20 kilotons (20,000,000 kg TNT). Both were air bursts – detonations were high in the air above the cities. This maximizes the effects.
LEFT: Hiroshima bombing created a huge mushroom cloud; the bomb was 15 kilotons in size. RIGHT: Artwork showing an American bomber dropping the atomic bomb.
LEFT: Hiroshima; RIGHT: Nagasaki (Picture taken by Charles Levy)
At the time this photo was made, smoke billowed 20,000 feet above Hiroshima while smoke from the burst of the first atomic bomb had spread over 10,000 feet on the target at the base of the rising column.
In contrast, the detonations of mininukes have much weaker effects. They can resemble detonations of conventional ordnance.
The World’s Smallest Nuke
VIDEO: The World’s Smallest Nuke Youtube
SADM or backpack nuke
These are called SADM or Special Atomic Demolition Munition. They can be carried as a backpack. They can even be deployed by parachute. They contained the W-54 warhead.
Special Atomic Demolition Munition
This old training film shows SADM being transported under water and then being deployed by parachute.
Troops were trained to parachute into Soviet-occupied western Europe with the SADM and destroy power plants, bridges, and dams.
VIDEO: American SADM Dailymotion
Training film for SADM delivery
Images from the training film
The components of a backpack nuke when taken apart.
The cylindrical metal casing for the nuclear device.
Extremely small (as small as 5 inches (13 cm) diameter and 24.4 inches (62 cm) long) linear implosion type weapons, which might conceivably fit in a large briefcase or typical suitcase, have been tested, but the lightest of those are nearly 100 pounds (45 kg) and had a maximum yield of only 0.19 kiloton (the Swift nuclear device, tested in Operation Redwing’s Yuma test on May 27, 1956). The largest yield of a relatively compact linear implosion device was under 2 kilotons for the cancelled (or never deployed but apparently tested) US W82-1 artillery shell design, with yield under 2 kilotons for a 95 pounds (43 kg) artillery shell 6.1 inches (15 cm) in diameter and 34 inches (86 cm) long. Wikipedia
The smallest diameter US test device publicly known was the Livermore “Swift” device fired in the Redwing Yuma shot on 28 May 1956.
|Time:||19:56 27 May 1956 (GMT)
07:56 28 May 1956 (local)
|Location:||Eniwetok Atoll, Aomon (Sally) Island|
|Test Height and Type:||205-foot tower|
This was a UCRL linear implosion design intended for air defense warheads. The device, known as Swift, was a boosted asymmetrical design. The device failed to boost however, and the yield was far below predictions. The Swift was only 5 inches in diameter, and 24.5 inches long, and weighed 96 lb. This was the smallest diameter, and lightest nuclear device tested up to this time. It used Octol 76/24 as the explosive and was presumably a plutonium fueled device.
Other types of tactical nukes
A tactical nuclear weapon (TNW) or non-strategic nuclear weapon is a nuclear weapon which is designed to be used on a battlefield in military situations, mostly with friendly forces in proximity and perhaps even on contested friendly territory. This is opposed to strategic nuclear weapons which are designed to be mostly targeted in the enemy interior away from the war front. (Wikipedia)
US scientists with a full-scale cut-away model of the W48, a very small tactical nuclear weapon with an explosive yield equivalent to 72 tons of TNT (0.072 kiloton). Around a thousand of these shells were produced during the Cold War. (link)
Comparison of some nukes. The last one, used on the battlefield, would be considered a tactical nuke.
Russian OTR-21 Tochka missile. Capable of firing a 100 kiloton nuclear warhead a distance of 185 km (Wikipedia)
French Pluton missile circa 1970s. Capable of firing a 15 kiloton nuclear warhead a distance of 120 km (Wikipedia)
American MGR-3 Little John missile, measuring 4.4. meters long with a diameter of 32 cm and a weight of 350 kg. Capable of firing a W45 warhead (10 kiloton yield) a distance of 19 km (Wikipedia)
Soviet RN-28 tactical nuke. Weight 250kg; variable yield, either 1-10kt or 5-30kt depending on source
Tactical nukes in a museum of nuclear weapons in Russia.
Earth penetrating tactical nukes: The nuclear bunker buster
Bunker busters, or earth-penetrating weapons, can be nuclear or non-nuclear. The bunker buster is designed to penetrate soil, rock or concrete. The nuclear warhead of a nuclear bunker-buster, when it reaches the underground target, explodes and destroys it. These weapons are used to destroy hardened underground bunkers and similar structures.
Low-yield and low-radiation
Because the explosion is underground, a larger fraction of its energy ends up in the ground compared to a surface burst or air burst weapon.
Therefore, a lower yield weapon can be used, which in turn leads to reduced release of radioactivity and smaller fallout.
However, as significant amounts of rock and soil are vaporized and lifted into the atmosphere, health-endangering fallout is still generated.
Taken from CNN video
B-61 nuclear bomb – very low yields (0.3 kton) possible
B-61 nuclear bomb. Shown is the training unit, used to train crews. It contains inert materials. (Wikipedia)
The B-61 nuclear bomb can be used as a bunker buster. It is a low to intermediate-yield (0.3 kilotons to 340 kilotons) tactical nuclear weapon. 0.3 kton is the equivalent of 300 ton of TNT. It is 3.56 meters long, has a diameter of 33 cm, and weighs 320 kg. (Wikipedia)
A B61 bomb undergoing disassembly.
LEFT: B61 bomb in various stages of assembly. The nuclear component is contained in the small, silver cylinder near the left upper middle of the picture. (Wikipedia) RIGHT: Internal nuclear components of the B61 bomb. (Images: Wikipedia)
Useful to destroy hardened structures
Such tactical weapons as nuclear bunker busters were probably employed because of their ability to destroy hardened structures. Destroying the steel core of the Towers as well as punching a hole in the steel bar netting of the periphery for a plane to slip inside would have posed a considerable challenge for the planners.
Tasks that nuclear bunker busters can perform with ease:
- Punching a hole in the steel grid mosquito netting of the Twin Towers
- Destroying the steel core of the Twin Towers
Video: B61-12 nuclear bomb test – nuclear bunker buster
VIDEO: The Earth-Penetrating Capability of The B61-12 Nuclear Bomb (Sandia National Laboratories) Youtube
Basement tactical nukes and plane tactical nukes
Basement tactical nukes were used to destroy the steel cores of the towers, and it’s highly likely a DU missile (a bunker buster) or a tactical nuke was fired from the planes to punch a hole in the steel lattice of the periphery of the WTC Towers and the reinforced concrete walls of the five-ringed Pentagon.
Tactical nuke explosions are usually smaller
World’s smallest nuke (Davy Crockett) being fired – a 10-ton explosion (video)
Hiroshima-type atomic bomb test in 1946 (video)
Why were tactical nukes used on 9/11?
- To take out the steel and reinforced concrete core
- To achieve complete destruction – in order to destroy the evidence
- To simulate a pancake collapse
- To conceal the fact that bombs were used – tactical nukes are compact and can be transported and hidden easily.
- To disguise a demolition wave caused by conventional bombs
Forty-foot deep crater
The 40-ft deep “pothole” (nytimes.com)
“Excavation at the World Trade Center site has uncovered, among other geologic features, a 40-foot glacial pothole … A fantastic landscape in Lower Manhattan — plummeting holes, steep cliffsides and soft billows of steel-gray bedrock, punctuated by thousands of beach-smooth cobblestones in a muted rainbow of reds and purples and greens — has basked in sunlight this summer for the first time in millennia.” nytimes.com
In the crater, there appears to be translucent glass-like material. This could be rock and sand that were vitrified in the explosion.
In addition, it was reported that thousands of colored “cobblestones” were uncovered at the site during excavation. These could be trinitite. Trinite can come in a variety of hues, including green, purple and red.
How the crater was formed
Bombs in the WTC
Schematic provided by anonymous “insider”. The nuke is placed in a basement level.
Shallowly buried detonation
Phases in a shallow underground explosion. From The Constructive Uses of Nuclear Explosives, McGraw-Hill Book Co., LC 68-11621. nuclearweaponarchive
Schematic illustration of the final explosion crater of a shallowly buried device
Deeply buried detonation
In this sort of detonation, a device is exploded inside a cavity deep underground.
The device is detonated in the control room (BBC)
The pressure in the cavity collapses, and a “rubble chimney” is formed. A crater sits atop on the surface.
In the aftermath of the explosion, the gas cools and the chamber collapses producing a crater. (BBC)
This diagram shows what happens in a deeply buried explosion. First of all, the surface of the earth is lifted by the expansion of heated gases from the explosion. In the second stage, the surface starts to collapse. The cavity collapses on itself and a rubble chimney is formed. At the base is a puddle of melted rock (radioactive glass). After a while, the ground above the rubble chimney starts to sink and a depression is formed – the third stage. This is the subsidence crater.
A subsidence crater is a depression left on the surface after an underground explosion. It is created when the roof of the cavity caused by the explosion collapses.
Underneath the pile of debris at the World Trade Center site was a huge subsidence crater. The height of the debris pile was small because most of the debris lay in the crater, filling it up and hiding it.
Under this debris is a large crater. The debris from a 110-storey tower and the contents inside it fill up the crater.
The Gnome test was an underground test of a small nuke (3-kiloton size). The nuke was buried under rock. This is similar to the detonation of the WTC nukes, which were buried in the basements and were enclosed by rock foundation below and basement slurry walls on the sides.
The Gnome Test was part of Operation Plowshare, a study done to assess the feasibility of using nukes for civilian construction purposes.
Nougat Gnome Crater. See the man standing under the arrow. This gives some idea of the size of the cavity. The pothole in the WTC was 40-foot deep. Picture from Operation Nougat.
Gnome cavity. (nuclearweaponarchive)
Comparison of Gnome cavity and the pothole found at Ground Zero. (Photo on right from nytimes.com)
Comparison of Gnome cavity and the pothole found at Ground Zero. Notice the arrow pointing to the man in the photo on right. (Photo on left from nytimes.com)
Pictures of the giant pothole left after the event
The pothole left after the event (theeventchronicle)
Comparisons of the “pothole” and the Gnome cavity
LEFT: Pothole at the WTC RIGHT: Cavity in rock left after underground nuclear test (Gnome Test). Note the arrow pointing to the man. From Operation Nougat
LEFT: Pothole at the WTC. RIGHT: Cavity in rock left after underground nuclear test (Gnome Test). Note the arrow pointing to the man. From Operation Nougat
Turned into “glass”
“Excavation at the World Trade Center site has uncovered, among other geologic features, a 40-foot glacial pothole”
LEFT: The crater in the bedrock under the Twin Towers. RIGHT: Detail in photo: Vitrified rock
Trinitite, also known as atomsite or Alamogordo glass, is the name for the glassy residue left on the desert floor after the plutonium-based Trinity nuclear bomb test on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico. The glass is primarily composed of arkosic sand composed of quartz grains and feldspar that was melted by the atomic blast. Trinitite is mildly radioactive but is safe to handle for short periods of time. (link)
LEFT:Trinitite, also known as Atomsite or Desert Glass RIGHT: Nuclear glass formed at the test site in New Mexico (Alien Policy)
Colorful “cobblestones” at Ground Zero
“A fantastic landscape in Lower Manhattan — plummeting holes, steep cliffsides and soft billows of steel-gray bedrock, punctuated by thousands of beach-smooth cobblestones in a muted rainbow of reds and purples and greens.” (New York Times)
Thousands of “cobblestones” of various hues – reds, purples, and greens – were found at Ground Zero. These could be a type of “trinitite”, rock and sand turned into glass, that can be formed at the site of nuclear explosions.
The typical green color of trinitite is caused by iron impurities, likely the result of the vaporized tower on which the device was positioned. Red trinitite like this is considerably more rare, and is associated with copper impurities from the cable runs that connected the device to the diagnostic and control trailers.
Red trinitite is found to the north of ground zero of the Trinity test. The red colour is due to the presence of copper in the glass. Close examination with the optical microscrope and scanning electron microscope reveals that this glass contains a number of metallic chondrules. Link
Perhaps the cobblestones resembled these samples of trinitite
LEFT: Red-green trinitite – a variety of trinitite (Ant Hill Sand); CENTER: Trinitite with red streak and blue-green varieties (Ant Hill Sand) RIGHT: Spheres on spheres. Several examples of trinitite beads that ran into other beads and stuck together before fully solidifying and falling back to the ground. (link)
Green, red and black pebbles of glass were also found at the Trinity Test Site
On the sandy floor of the test site there are pieces of trinitite, blue-green pebbles of glass that were created when the bomb exploded. Some of the trinitite is also red or black, and contains copper or iron from the vaporized bomb and tower.
“The Geek Atlas: 128 Places where Science and Technology Come Alive” by John Graham-Cumming p.418 The Geek Atlas
Differences between WTC and Hiroshima nukings
World Trade Center
Explosions were underground
Underground bursts reduce the effects (blast, thermal and radiation) of the explosion.
Underground nuclear test produces a cavity and a subsidence crater
Placement of the tactical nukes. Smaller ones may have been placed at higher levels.
The mininuke was detonated in a basement level of the Tower. Another nuke may have been placed on one of the higher floors but it would have been smaller in size than the basement nuke. Mininukes can be as small as 10 tons of TNT in yield.
Weapon was a mini-nuke
Man carrying the Davy Crockett
Yield of the weapon was small
The yield of the weapons used in the WTC events would have been around 1 kiloton, making the weapons a mini-nuke.
Mushroom cloud is small
Another view of the mushroom cloud
Small mushroom cloud forming
Mushroom cloud of the world’s smallest nuke – W54. This was a 10-ton weapon.
The detonations in the WTC basement were shielded by the basement levels and the bedrock foundation and the slurry walls, which formed a “bathtub”. This helped reduce the effects of the explosion.
Only glow from the fireball was seen
Since the fireball was formed underground inside the building, it could not be seen in pictures and videos taken. However, some people at the scene reported seeing a huge fireball when the towers exploded.
Bright light from the fireball which is hidden from external view. The light from a nuclear explosion is described as brighter than a “thousand suns”.
CNN was able to capture the glow from the fireball in this video. Note how the screen suddenly brightens 3 seconds in.
Radiation contamination was cleaned up
Contaminated debris was trucked out and clean soil was trucked in.
Contaminated debris was trucked out
Clean soil was brought in. Soil is good for reducing the radiation of a contaminated area.
The streets were hosed down.
Even the dust on the cars was washed off.
People were hosed down
However, it was insufficient to reduce the radiation to safe levels. Many workers contracted cancer.
Radius of destruction
The red areas show buildings that partly collapsed. The blue buildings sustained major damage.
The Winter Atrium, between the World Financial Center 2 on the left and World Financial Center 3 on the right (below) was severely damaged although it was located 100 meters from the WTC 1.
Winter Atrium. Note the steel beams from the WTC 1 on the ground. Steel beams were flung from the Twin Towers into this area 100-150 meters away.
Picture shows the WFC 3 building is 150 meters from the nearest Twin Tower.
A large subsidence crater is left behind
The crater that was left behind after the detonation of a bunker buster. From video.
Explosions were air bursts
Air bursts tend to maximize the effects for a given yield.
Enola Gay was the name of the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima
The bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were air bursts.
Crew of Enola Gay
The bomb was dropped 576 meters above Hiroshima. The height the mushroom cloud reached is shown.
Cloud height is higher for a bigger yield in surface bursts.
Mushroom cloud size varies with the size of the weapon
Weapon was a medium-sized atomic bomb
Comparison with a man’s height
‘Fat Man’, the bomb that was used on Nagasaki.
‘Little Man’, the bomb that was used on Hiroshima
Little Man, being wired up and tested before deployment.
Yield of the weapon was higher
Hiroshima was 15 kilotons, Nagasaki was 20 tons.
3 kilotons vs 15 kilotons
Mushroom clouds were large in size
Coastline is outlined in this picture of Hiroshima (at the bottom) to show the magnitude of the mushroom cloud.
Mushroom cloud over Hiroshima left and Nagasaki on the right.
The pyrocumulus clouds over Hiroshima made the sky go dark.
Mushroom cloud of a nuke test
Mushroom cloud of Nagasaki
Clip shows the different sizes of the explosions. On the left it Trinity. On the right is the (W-54) Davy Crockett test.
No shielding of the effects in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki detonations.
Fireball was large and visible
The fireball from a nuclear test.
The size of the fireball in the Trinity test was 100 meters radius. This was a 20-kton bomb. (Photo: CNN)
No large scale cleanup was started immediately at Hiroshima or Nagasaki
Hiroshima after the bombing
Radius of destruction
In Hiroshima, the radius of destruction was 1 mile or 1.6 km.
Aerial view of Nagasaki
Mangled tangle of steel
Reasons for use of tactical nukes – more details
- To destroy the core of the towers. The core was highly resistant to destruction.
- To cause total destruction of the contents of the towers and the planes in order to hide the evidence that might be found on the planes, bodies of the passengers and in the towers.
- To simulate a gravity-driven collapse. One wave of collapse that swept through from top to bottom would look more like a gravity-driven collapse than a series of many smaller waves of collapses.
- To disguise the use of conventional ordnance in the collapses.
- To hide the bombs in the Towers better. Tactical nukes are compact in size: they give “more bang for the buck”, and therefore they can be hidden more easily in the buildings.
- To get around the need for stripping the building’s walls down to the steel beams and concrete. Nuclear munitions will destroy structures easily without needing to be in contact with surfaces, unlike many other munitions.
LEFT: Soviet RN-28 tactical nuke. Weight 250 kg; variable yield, from 1 to 10 kt. RIGHT: The equivalent of a 10-kiloton tactical nuke would require truckloads of bombs. Hiding this quantity of bombs in an office tower would be difficult.
Placement of tactical nuke in tower
The suggested placement of the tactical mini-nukes within the Towers (see illustration below). One mini-nuke was placed underground in the basement levels. Another nuke was placed about one-third of the way up. This one was probably of a very low yield compared to the basement one. The nukes were placed in this way to ensure the bombs would take out the core.
The core, that consisted of steel beams and reinforced concrete, were the hardest structures to destroy. To ensure complete destruction, nukes were used.
Nukes were considered for demolition purposes in civilian construction projects in the past. See Operation Plowshare.
Even the radiation effects of the nukes were thought to be containable if the bombs were buried deep underground.
In the WTC case, the basement levels would have been suitable places to locate the mini-nukes.
Unlike the case with a Hiroshima or Nagasaki-type bomb, the mushroom cloud, fireball and radius of destruction would be less obvious.
Suggested placement of the mini-nukes.
The Bathtub acted as containment and shielding for the tactical nuke effects. It helped to camouflage the fact that nukes had been exploded to cause the towers’ fall and destruction. The seismic shock was also reduced, due to the ability of the Bathtub to act as a decoupling cavern.
A view of the “Bathtub” after it has been washed down
The Bathtub was the solid bedrock on which the Towers were built, plus the slurry walls on the surrounding sides.
The six basement levels of the Towers resided within the Bathtub. The Bathtub acted as shielding for the bomb’s effects. It allowed the bomb to be “buried” underground. Thus, the blast, thermal and radiation effects were much less than if the bomb had not been placed in this way.
Responder climbing below the rubble into the cavern below
Construction of the slurry wall
Another view of the “Bathtub”. There were six basement levels.
Schema of the Bathtub.
How was collateral damage reduced?
This was done by detonating the bomb underground. The shielding from the Bathtub, the bedrock, and the floors and walls of the basement levels greatly reduced the collateral damage, masking the fact that the explosions were nuclear in nature.
The footprint of large-sized debris in a vertical straight-down pancake collapse should not have a radius much bigger than the radius of the building’s own footprint. And according to the official account, the towers fell vertically down on their footprint in a floor-by-floor pancake collapse: each floor progressively falling under the weight of the floors above it and the loss of supports underneath it.
However, in the Twin Towers’ case, the footprint of large-sized debris has a radius of at least 150 meters. Large-sized debris such as heavy steel girders were found near the World Financial Center 3 building, which is 150 meters distance from the closest Twin Tower, the North Tower (WTC 1). Steel lattices also speared the World Financial Center 3 building, 150 meters away.
The footprint, with a radius of at least 150 meters, is consistent with an explosion but not with a straight vertical pancake collapse.
World Financial Center 2 and 3 and Winter Garden Atrium is shown. The distance between the WFC 3 and North Tower is 150 meters. The red dots show location of large-sized debris.
Estimated footprint in a pure pancake collapse.
Steel beams landed 150 meters away as well as speared a distant tower
Parts of the lattice speared the corner of the WFC 3, which means the lattice sections traveled 150 meters horizontally in the air. Powerful horizontal forces are absent in gravitational collapses.
LEFT: Steel lattices of the World Trade Center CENTER: World Financial Center Towers 2 and 3. Large-sized debris including parts of steel lattices (the red dots in the map above). Steel lattices also speared the WFC 3 Tower. RIGHT: Close-up of the steel lattices embedded in the World Financial Center 3 Tower. WFC 3 is 150 meters from the North Tower.
Underground bursts can contain the radiation to some degree
Subsidence Crater Formation: Historic underground nuclear test causes the surface to subside which forms a crater. (Provided by the US Department of Energy under Public Domain rules.) Video.
Detonating a nuclear device underground reduces the effects of a nuclear explosion to some degree. The blast energy is absorbed by the earth. This will cause damage to underground structures but the power of the blast wave in the air will be reduced. A large proportion of the radiation will be trapped by the debris in the crater.
‘In this case a large part of the heat radiation and the immediate nuclear radiation is absorbed in the crater … produced by the explosion, and the surrounding buildings provide considerable shielding against the remainder …
A greater proportion of the radioactivity is trapped in the debris of the crater, mingling with the material which spills out around the crater and immediately downwind. This gives rise to a serious but more localised residual radiation hazard; the radioactive fall-out beyond is less widely distributed. glasstone
The concrete and steel core of the Towers
The core of the Twin Towers was built to withstand anything: earthquakes, great winds, even plane crashes. It was composed of steel and reinforced concrete. Even if the rest of the building fell away after being consumed by fire, the steel core was designed to be still standing, it was so strong. It had to be strong in order to keep the 110-story structure sturdy.
In this picture, the silhouette of the steel and reinforced concrete core of the Twin Tower stands out.
The engineering problem for the perps was how to take down the core.
The tower’s core and perimeter.
Illustration showing the core
Tactical nuke yields can be very low but can destroy resistant steel cores
The yield can be as low as 0.01 ton (10 tons of TNT).
Nuclear bunker busters are considered tactical nukes because of their low yields. This diagram shows a 5-kiloton weapon. In this diagram, the mini-nuke is fired at the target. However, in the WTC’s case, the bomb would have simply been left in situ at the target site. Picture is from Federation of American Scientists
Grenfell Tower fire
The steel skeleton is the strongest part of any tower. Grenfell Tower was standing 60 hours after the fire started. It will probably stand until it is demolished.
Grenfell Tower still standing after 60 hours. Yet the Twin Towers fell after just 1 hour.
September 11 was an engineering problem – how to destroy the core?
The Twin Towers only had two or three floors on fire after the fireball had burned itself out. The fires were small, and in the South Tower, they were about to be put out by the fire brigade with two hoses just before the collapse started. But it fell, less than an hour after it had been struck by a plane. The North Tower fell 1.5 hours after being hit by a plane.
Grenfell Tower in London had nearly all floors on fire. It was a 24 floor building. The fires raged for almost 3 days. But it was still standing 60 hours later.
Twin Towers fell after 1 to 1.5 hours. Grenfell Tower still stood after being on fire for almost 3 days.
Problems with using thermite
The two main problems are that it needs to be applied directly to surfaces and it doesn’t destroy concrete.
- Thermite doesn’t destroy concrete – it’s a weak explosive
- Thermite has to be applied directly to surfaces
- Thermite is an incendiary device – lots of flame is produced
Metal would have to be stripped down to its bare surface and thermite applied to it for thermite to destroy the metal.
In this experiment, a metal can containing 6 pounds of thermite was placed on a pile of bricks. Even though the metal can melted, the bricks were only burned but not dislodged from their positions. This demonstrates that thermite has weak explosive property. Some people do not classify thermite as an explosive for this reason. It is mainly used for cutting and welding metal. Thermite characteristically produces flames, and is used in incendiary devices (a weapon to start fires).
Each Twin Tower had about 500,000 tons of concrete. The amount of thermite needed to destroy all this concrete and turn it into powder would have been astronomical, considering that six pounds of thermite could not blast a brick.
Thermite may have been used as an adjunct in the demolition of the towers, but it had only a minor role, if it was used at all.
A tactical nuke would solve most of the problems of how to demolish a core made of steel and reinforced concrete.
Not a single brick displaced
6 pounds of thermite could not destroy a single brick. How much thermite would have been needed to crush 500,000 tons of concrete into fine particles?
This ball of plutonium would have no problem doing the job of destroying a 110-story tower as well as turning 500,000 tons of concrete into dust.
Six pounds of plutonium can destroy a city block
Watch the bricks.
VIDEO: Thermite Reactions – Compilation Youtube
Needs to be applied directly to bare surfaces
Israeli art students in the 90th floor of the North Tower doing construction work for an art project 6 months before September 11. (Read about the Gelatin E-team at the towers here)
Major construction work would have been required to strip the steel down to its bare surface on 110 floors, and so would have been impractical.
Also, the steel surfaces could not be accessed in many cases; for example, in the core. The steel there was surrounded by reinforced concrete.
Insufficient blasting power
Thermite doesn’t have sufficient power to throw heavy steel beams far distances and impale them in buildings. High kinetic energy would have been needed. In the pictures below, heavy steel beams weighing many tons were flung 150 meters from the North Tower and were impaled in the World Financial Tower 3.
Beams from the Twin Towers speared the World Financial Tower 3 150 meters away.
Thermite can’t bend steel beams
Many steel beams were bent into pretzel and horseshoe shapes on September 11. Thermite nor ordinary explosives can do this. The great thermal energy generated by a nuclear explosion is able to do this.
Tremendous heat is required to bend these huge beams into these shapes. Heat from ordinary building fires or a thermite explosion is insufficient to do this.
A nuclear bunker buster fired from the plane?
VIDEO: A View of Plane Impact in South Tower World Trade Center Youtube
Possible causes of molten metal in the photo that was seen shortly after plane impact
- Nuclear bunker buster fired from the plane
- Depleted uranium bunker buster fired from the plane
- Pre-planted explosive device (conventional or a micronuke) on a plane crash floor that was detonated soon after the impact of the plane with the tower.
- Thermite charges pre-planted in the plane crash floors (the least likely cause)
- A combination of the above.
Molten steel dripping down
The most likely cause for the molten metal seen in the picture is either a DU earth penetrator or a nuclear bunker buster fired from the plane, probably from the radome of the plane, and fired by a proximity fuze or a fuze with another type of sensor (radio, optical, acoustic, or magnetic). The reason to suspect missiles is that something was needed that could punch a hole in the steel latticework of the periphery, through which the plane could enter. An ordinary missile would probably fail to do that, and a plane, with its soft aluminium nose cone, would almost certainly be unable to achieve that.
VIDEO: The Earth Penetrating Capability of The B61 12 Nuclear Bomb extract Youtube
An earth-penetrator is a weapon that can reliably penetrate the limestone, metal mesh, reinforced concrete walls of the five-ring Pentagon, and smash through the steel latticework of the peripheral walls of the Towers. A nuclear bunker buster would be the best bet to slice through thick steel columns. Moreover, a large object was seen flying out from the other side. That was probably a missile part flying out, or the plane’s nose cone exiting through the hole that had previously been made by the missile.
A flash of light at the nose of the plane before it hits the South Tower. Looks like a missile is being fired from the radome of the plane and the flash is from the tail of the missile.
It was important that the planes enter the buildings so that they could be blamed for the ensuing fires that were said to be caused by leaked jet fuel. The fires could then be blamed for the collapse of the towers.
Additionally, the evidence on the planes had to be completely destroyed.
The plane that crashed in Shanksville was probably armed with a bunker buster (depleted uranium or nuclear), in readiness to fire at some building. This was detonated shortly after the plane crashed, or just before it crashed, by remote control, to hide the evidence of the missile and the other evidence on the plane.
Hence, it’s possible that there were two types of tactical nukes used in the attacks. One set were nukes that had been pre-planted in various locations inside the towers, including the basement levels, and the other set were to be fired from the planes.
Bunker buster penetrating through many layers of concrete
VIDEO: GBU 28 ‘Bunker Buster’ Laser Guided Bomb Penetrating a Wall Youtube
While not a nuclear bunker buster, the principle of operation of the GBU 28 bunker buster is the same. The head of the bomb is made from hardened steel so that it can survive the plunge through many feet of soil and layers of concrete. Once the bomb has entered the bunker, an advanced electronic fuze sets off the warhead. New versions of this warhead have been in service since 1995.
Massive fireballs with ordnance flashes
Bunker busters could explain the appearance of massive fireballs shortly after the plane’s impact with the Towers, creating the dramatic scenes that were caught on camera. In the video below, the bunker buster destroys a hardened target, and a fireball is generated on the inner side of the target.
VIDEO: Bunker buster bomb Youtube
Why is it important to determine whether nukes were used or not?
Ziad Jarrah and Mohammed Atta
It narrows down the field of culprits. If thermite is proven to be used, it doesn’t narrow down the field of possible culprits. Arab terrorists could have somehow introduced thermite into the buildings.
The mistake of many conspiracy theorists is that they limit the evidence they use to base their conclusions on. Instead of looking at all the evidence at hand, they tend to focus on the molten metal picture or the finding of microscopic iron spherules.
They decide that this is sufficient evidence to conclude that thermite was used.
However, there are other causes for these findings of molten metal and microscopic iron spherules.
By narrowing the cause down to thermite, through ignoring other possibilities, and not fully knowing the properties of thermite, investigators reach the wrong conclusion that thermite was the main material used to destroy the towers.
There are these possibilities involved:
- Thermite was the main material used to destroy the towers.
- Nukes were the main material used to destroy the towers and thermite was not used.
- Nukes were the main material used to destroy the towers, and thermite was used to cut some steel joints.
On the basis of all the evidence available, which includes the medical evidence of the cancers in workers, the physical evidence of the area and scope of destruction, and the chemical evidence of radioactive elements in the debris, the conclusion that can be drawn fits numbers 2 and 3.
Different features, such as the length of the nose, appear in these images.
Thermite cannot explain the medical evidence, physical and chemical evidence.
Once again, finding the correct cause is important so that the culprits are correctly identified.
In faked videos where an actor is impersonating someone, the images and film will be grainy, unclear and blurred. In contrast, when the real person appears in the film or in a photo, the images will be clear.
Thermite could have been obtained by Arab terrorists in 2001 or earlier. However, they would not have been able to obtain nuclear material.
Therefore, the conclusion that nukes were used means that Arab terrorists can be ruled out as the culprits. They were patsies.
Only state actors that have access to tactical nukes can be the culprits, which narrows down the field considerably.
“Bin Laden” in 2004 and 2007. Often the videos and images are grainy and unclear when actors impersonate a person and faking is done.
Cancers in workers and bystanders
Much of the following information is from the WTC Health Program. This program offers health care to those directly affected by the September 11th attacks.
Total cancer certificates (responders and bystanders)
- In 2013: 1,100 (CNN)
- In 2014: 2,500 (link)
- In 2015: 3,204 (CDC)
- In 2016: 5,400 (CDC, CNN)
- In 2017: 6,893 (CDC)
Between 2013 and 2017, the number of people with cancer increased 6x (from 1,100 to 6,893).
Graph made with statistics compiled from CDC, NY Post and CNN reports
The news below was reported in August, 2016 when 5,400 workers and bystanders had cancer. Just one year later, this information was outdated. In June 2017, the number of people who had worked or lived near the WTC site or other 9/11 sites with cancer was reported to be 6,893, an increase of approximately 1,400 people. Cancer has been increasing by 1,200-1,400 cases every year. Report: CNN
This news was reported in August, 2016 when 5,400 people had cancer after 9/11. The figure became quickly outdated. Article from CNN
67,500 workers were enrolled in the program as of June 2017. 5,800 have cancer. 1,300 people have already died.
World Trade Center Health Program 2017 CDC
Early appearance of mesothelioma = radiation, not asbestos. Conclusive proof that radiation is the cause of cancers.
In what should sound an alarm, cases of mesothelioma (pleural lining cancer) occurring early have been reported in the media. An emergency worker died in 2006 of mesothelioma, five years after 9/11. Emergency worker Deborah Reeve died of mesothelioma in 2004, three years after the September 11 attacks.
These are just the cases reported in the media; there could be other similar cases. Since it takes 20-50 years to develop mesothelioma after asbestos exposure, this rules out asbestos as the cause.
The only known cause for early mesothelioma is radiation. Air toxins do not cause mesothelioma. Only radiation can cause these workers’ cancer. Therefore, these cases of early mesothelioma are conclusive proof that radiation is the cause of their cancer. Radiation fits the medical as well as other kinds of evidence.
Emergency worker Deborah Reeve’s age of 41 years at death virtually eliminates the possibility that she was exposed to work-related asbestos when she was younger.
These diseases normally take between 20 and 50 years to display symptoms. But in 2006 – five years after inhaling the toxic debris from Ground Zero – an emergency responder from 9/11 died of mesothelioma. Another worker, 41-year-old Deborah Reeve, developed a serious cough just two years after the attacks and died of mesothelioma in 2004. asbestos.com/world-trade-center/
All kinds of cancers seen including rare ones; even childhood cancers
A wide variety of cancers appear in the people exposed, including rare cancers. Workers are being denied coverage for their rare cancers as the cancers are not linked to airborne toxins in studies.
Responders worked in the hypocenter right after the attacks. These people would have received a high-dose of radiation, and were completely unprotected from the alpha, beta and gamma rays that were being emitted from the dust and debris.
The cancer profile of September 11 responders matches the cancer profile of survivors in the Hiroshima bombing.
Top 15 cancers in the World Trade Center Health Program 2017 CDC
Source: Effects of A-bomb Radiation on the Human Body 1992,
Ed. Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-exposed, Bunkodo (pcf.city.hiroshima)
In Hiroshima, common cancers were thyroid, breast, lung, and salivary gland cancer. Leukemia and thyroid cancer appeared the earliest. Leukemia started showing up 5 years after the bombing.
The latency period for leukemia is 5 years. Therefore, it was the first cancer to appear after the Japanese bombings. For solid tumors, the latency period is a little longer – at least 10 years. (NCBI-NIH).
The incidence of leukemias is related to the dose of radiation. The higher the dose, the higher the incidence.
Note: “High-dose” means 1 Sievert or more. (Reference: A-bomb Radiation Effects Digest 1992)
Age and leukemia risk in high-dose (> 1 Sievert) group. Note that leukemia appears earlier the younger the age of the person. (pcf.city.hiroshima)
16 years after the September 11 attacks, there were 247 cases of leukemia among the workers and bystanders. (CDC).
Number of leukemia cases in Hiroshima survivors (Glasstone)
Rate of leukemia in Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors and other cancers compared to controls (from 1950-78) Glasstone
In 2013: “More than 1,100 have cancer after 9/11”
In 2014: “2,500 Ground Zero workers have cancer”
In 2016: “Diagnoses of 9/11-linked cancers have tripled in less than 3 years”
2015: “EXCLUSIVE: State judge denies workers’ compensation claim brought by ASPCA animal rescuer dying from 9/11-related cancer”
2016: “Endless Attack: Sick 9/11 Responders Still Struggle to Get By”
2014: “9/11 responders with rare cancer denied insurance coverage”
2016: “9/11’s second wave: Cancer and other diseases linked to the 2001 attacks are surging”
2017: “FDNY Firefighter Michael Duffy Dies of 9/11-Linked Cancer”
2017: “‘Heroic’ Retired NYPD Cop Dies from 9/11-Linked Cancer”
2017: “Father and son 9/11 first responders die less than a year apart from cancer linked to 9/11 recovery”
Tactical nukes can be smuggled in easily
LEFT: Mockup of suitcase nuke RIGHT: Suitcase nuke
W54 Special Atomic Demolition Munition (SADM) was produced in the United States until 1988. The W54 was a small (0.01 to 1 kiloton) suitcase nuke with the entire unit weighing in at under 163 pounds.
Several Russians have reported that after the fall of the communist regime in the Soviet bloc, mininukes (or “suitcase nukes”) were smuggled out of the Soviet Union and sold on the black market. There are also reports that they entered the USA via the Mexican border. Transporting mininukes into the US was a relatively easy thing to do according to these reports.
Lunev asserted that some of the hidden caches could contain portable tactical nuclear weapons known as RA-115 “suitcase bombs”. Such bombs have been prepared to assassinate US leaders in the event of war, according to him. Lunev states that he had personally looked for hiding places for weapons caches in the Shenandoah Valley area and that “it is surprisingly easy to smuggle nuclear weapons into the US, either across the Mexican border or using a small transport missile that can slip undetected when launched from a Russian airplane.
US Congressman Curt Weldon supported claims by Lunev but noted that Lunev had “exaggerated things”, according to the FBI. Searches of the areas identified by Lunev — who admits he never planted any weapons in the US — have been conducted, “but law-enforcement officials have never found such weapons caches, with or without portable nuclear weapons.”
Suitcase nuclear device
Popular media often show large nuclear detonations
1) Fireball 2) Mushroom cloud 3) Winds and overpressures 4) Firestorm
Spectacular effects such as a giant fireball, gigantic mushroom cloud and a widespread firestorm are often shown in depictions of nuclear explosions. However, these sorts of effects won’t be seen in underground detonations of low-yield tactical nukes. Instead, they will mimic the detonations of large-yield conventional bombs.
Many people are exposed to videos like the ones below. They may think that all nuke bombings are similar – spectacular affairs. However, this is not always the case. The bomb in the video below is 800 kt. Compare this to the estimated size of the bombs used in the 9/11 attacks: less than 3 kilotons. Also, the bomb is detonated above New York City, not buried underground or shielded within the walls of a tower.
What if a Bomb hit NYC?
Mini-nuke explosions are rarely discussed
Discussions about mini-nukes are rare except for bunker busters. Small nuclear bombs (10 tons) will produce different effects from large bombs (50 megaton Tsar Bomba).
Factors that determine the type of explosions (size and height of the mushroom cloud, size of the fireball, the area and extent of damage) are:
- Type of burst: below ground, above ground
- Yield of the bomb
- Height of the detonation. For air bursts, the higher the burst the greater the effects in general.
The detonation of a tactical nuke will produce a tiny mushroom cloud compared to the mushroom cloud of Hiroshima.
Diagram comparing the size of the mushroom clouds.
Comparing a micronuke and a normal nuke
World’s smallest nuke being fired (video)
Hiroshima-type atomic bomb tests in 1946 (video)
Disaster scenarios usually feature detonation of mega-sized nuclear bombs
Note that the detonation of an 800 kt nuclear weapon is being described in the scenario below. It is detonated at an altitude suited to destroy a city.
25 FEBRUARY 2015
What would happen if an 800-kiloton nuclear warhead detonated above midtown Manhattan?
Steven Starr, Lynn Eden, Theodore A. Postol
Russian intercontinental ballistic missiles are believed to carry a total of approximately 1,000 strategic nuclear warheads that can hit the US less than 30 minutes after being launched. Of this total, about 700 warheads are rated at 800 kilotons; that is, each has the explosive power of 800,000 tons of TNT. … (cont.)
Read more: thebulletin
Types of bursts
1. a. Surface burst b. Atmospheric burst 2. Subsurface (underground) burst 3. High altitude, air or upper-atmospheric burst 4. Underwater burst [Diagram: Wikimedia Commons: Types of nuclear testing]
Bursts can be classified in different ways:
Classification of bursts
- Air burst
- Surface burst
- Subsurface (underground) burst
- High altitude burst
- Underwater burst
The type of burst involved in the WTC attacks was mainly subsurface/ underground burst. A crater will result from an underground burst. If no penetration of the surface occurs, the main hazard will be ground shock.
But if the burst is shallow enough to penetrate the surface, blast, thermal and radiation effects. These effects will be less than those for an air burst of the same yield.
In underground bursts, if the surface of the ground is penetrated, local fallout will be very heavy.
In this type of burst, soil and debris are lifted into the atmosphere and fallout is concentrated above Ground Zero.
In the WTC attacks, the surface was penetrated, and so many responders and bystanders were exposed to intense local fallout. This explains the high rate of cancer among these people (see below).
Types of Bursts.
The relative effects of blast, heat, and nuclear radiation will largely be determined by the altitude at which the weapon is detonated. Nuclear explosions are generally classified as air bursts, surface bursts, subsurface bursts, or high altitude bursts.
a. Air Bursts. An air burst is an explosion in which a weapon is detonated in air at an altitude below 30 km but at sufficient height that the fireball does … (cont.)
Read more at: FAS: Effects of Nuclear Explosions
Peaceful nukes – nukes used in demolitions
A still from a film introducing Operation Plowshare to the public
Nuking for peaceful purposes such as construction work was considered by the US Government at one time (although the program was abandoned later due to health effects considerations), and many tests were performed, starting in 1960. This was Operation Plowshare or Plowshare Program (“Atoms for Peace”).
Uses for these “peaceful nukes” included:
- clearing a path through mountains for building of roads
- building a harbor
- widening a canal
- blasting underground caverns for water, natural gas and petroleum storage
One of the Chariot schemes involved chaining five thermonuclear devices to create the artificial harbor. Dept of Energy image.
The Schooner Event was part of the Plowshare Program. Video.
Chagan was an underwater detonation the Soviet Union’s Peaceful Nuclear Explosions program, modeled on the American program. It was done to investigate the earth-moving effects of nuclear explosions for civil construction purposes.
Russian test: Chagan (140 kt; underwater)
Project Gnome (New Mexico) was a test in the Plowshare Program. It involved exploding a 3.1 kton nuclear bomb 361 meters underground in a salt deposit. This resulted in a large rock cavity.
It was believed that burying the explosion deep underground would reduce the release of radiation to acceptable levels. However, significant amounts of radiation escaped in these tests and the Plowshare project was abandoned 11 years later.
These operations show that it is possible to reduce radiation levels from a nuclear explosion by a significant degree. If the size of the weapon is small, and the device is placed deep enough, and the explosion does not penetrate the surface, leakage of radiation to the outside can be minimized.
Operation Plowshare nuclear tests
The tests listed here are of low yield (0.37 to 3 kt) and were done underground, and were conducted to assess demolition and other earth-moving applications of nuclear explosions. These explosions would have been similar to the ones at the WTC Towers.
Type of test
Gnome (3 kt)
New Mexico (1961), shaft, 361 m burial, salt
A multipurpose experiment designed to provide data re: (1) heat generated from a nuclear explosion; (2) isotopes production; (3) neutron physics; (4) seismic measurements in a salt medium; and (5) design data for developing nuclear devices specifically for peaceful uses.
Tornillo (0.38 kt)
Nevada Test Site (1963), shaft, 149 m burial, alluvium
A device-development experiment to produce a clean nuclear explosive for excavation applications.
Sulky (0.9 kt)
Nevada Test Site (1964), shaft, 27.4 m burial, basalt
An excavation experiment to explore cratering mechanics in hard, dry rock and study dispersion patterns of airborne radionuclides released under these conditions.
Templar (0.37 kt)
Nevada Test Site (1966), shaft, 150.9 m burial, tuff
To develop an improved nuclear explosive for excavation applications.
Saxon (1.2 kt)
Nevada Test Site (1966), 153 m burial, tuff
A device-development experiment to improve nuclear explosives for excavation applications.
Simms (2.3 kt)
Nevada Test Site (1966), shaft, 190.1 m burial, alluvium
A device-development experiment to evaluate clean nuclear explosives for excavation applications.
GIFs of Operation Plowshare tests
These gifs are taken from the video of Plowshare tests called Operation Plowshare: “Project Dugout” 1964 Lawrence Radiation Laboratory AEC.
Being underground tests, they show how underground tests differ from atmospheric detonations. There is an absence of fireballs or large mushroom clouds in these tests.
Streamers and plumes are prominent
Plumes and streamers of debris and dust shoot out from the center of the explosion. The phenomenon resembles the eruption of a volcano. The dust often consists of soil particles.
Dirt and particularized debris is thrown up and descends in streamers and plumes.
Smaller mushroom cloud
Because the explosion is buried underground, the typical large mushroom cloud is not seen.
Lack of a visible fireball
Since the explosion occurs underground, the fireball is usually not visible, although occasionally flashes of fire can be seen in the mushroom cloud.
The glow from the fireball can sometimes be seen.
A lot of dirt is thrown out as the soil is displaced by the force of the explosion. The ground is lifted up.
These are clouds that appear close to the ground spreading out from the base of an explosion.
Surge clouds can be seen spreading outwards while hugging the ground.
Summary of characteristics of underground tests
- Lack of a visible fireball
- Surge clouds
- Smaller mushroom cloud
- Plumes and streamers of pulverized debris and dirt are prominent
WTC – plumes, streamers, cascades, mushrooms, surge clouds
In the gifs below, streamers and plumes from the particularized debris of the building materials and office contents shoot out from the center in arcs, like water shooting out from a fountain. The shape of the arc indicates that upward and sideways forces are present.
Cascades of water from a fountain
A central column shooting upwards is present in many of the photos and videos. This suggests the presence of a vertical force that ejects matter upwards, which is not consistent with a purely gravitational force. Surrounding this central chimney are plumes of particularized debris. Most of the matter (building contents and materials) has already been turned into small particles by this point.
Also, the diameter of the disintegration cloud is not consistent with a pancake gravity-driven collapse. The size of the debris footprint is also not consistent with a vertical gravitational collapse.
The central column is prominent in this photo.
In this GIF below, a central debris plume shoots upwards as a vertical column. On the sides, streamers of debris trace an arc, like in a fountain.
Small round clouds of dust are formed as the wave of destruction proceeds downwards. At the end, a dark cloud in a distinctive mushroom shape is seen.
Below, at the foot of the tower, large clouds of dust are rising up from the ground.
A variety of plumes and streamers and a mushroom cloud that twists in a toroidal-like motion are visible.
In this GIF below, streamers and plumes of particularized debris form and shoot out from the tower.
WTC detonations were like underground tests
In these explosions, dirt and debris are thrown up and shoot outwards. Below, at the base of the towers, surge clouds form and spread out, covering the ground.
The differences between the two types of explosions can be explained by the fact that conventional bombs were used in the September 11 attacks in addition to nuclear bombs. Hence, the GIFS of the WTC (on the right) reflect the combined use of the two types of bombs. In some GIFS of the WTC, multiple explosions can be seen, with small mushroom debris clouds “popping out”. These explosions are detonations of conventional demolition charges (or “squibs”) that were placed in the Towers.
Plumes, streamers, cascades, surge clouds
Bunker buster compared to WTC Towers
Taken from CNN video
Debris is formed in mid-air
Streamers shoot outwards, and the force of the explosion expels beams outwards, impaling them into buildings 150 meters away.
WARNING: This video is banned on Youtube. You will get a community strike if you upload this video. Use BitChute (non-censoring of political speech) instead.
VIDEO: By Dauvit Magauran ArchiveOrg
“Truth suffers from too much analysis.” Ancient Fremen Saying – Frank Herbert, Dune Messiah (Video originally from a link in Facebook)
Pure gravity-driven collapses
Summary of why gravity fails as a cause
- Gravity is a downwards force, not a sideways force.
- Gravity lacks the power to smash concrete into fine powder of 0.3 micron in size before it hits the ground.
In purely gravity-driven collapses, such a high volume of particularized debris would not be created. In addition, a force greater than gravity is needed to pulverize all the building materials used in the construction of the floor and the contents of the offices.
Seen is a giant column of debris plume shooting upward at the start of the disintegration cascade. This is reminiscent of powerful explosions, as observed in nuclear explosions and volcanic explosions. It indicates the presence of an upward force, something you would not expect to see in a purely gravity-driven collapse.
A bunker buster in action
The bunker buster penetrates a bunker and then the warhead explodes. Like many underground explosions, much dirt and debris are thrown into the atmosphere. If the bunker buster is nuclear, much local fallout is produced.
VIDEO: Bunker buster in action Youtube
Crater produced by a bunker buster
Conventional weapons used with nuclear weapons produces a complex picture
Conventional explosives were detonated alongside with nuclear weapons, creating different types of explosions. Explosive blends containing ammonium nitrate, including ANFO (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil), an industrial explosive, account for 80% of explosives used in North America. (Read more about the various types of explosives used in demolitions here.)
1) Ammonium nitrate 2) TNT 3) Dynamite 4) Gelignite
5) C4 6) Semtex 7) C4 8) C4
In building implosions due to demolition, little or no flame is observed, unlike collapses and disintegrations due to fire.
Implosion of the Athlone Power Station cooling towers on 22 August 2010. (Wikipedia)
Below is an article on the types of explosives used in demolitions. From: designingbuildings
Types of explosive
The most commonly used types of explosive for construction demolition are:
Ammonium nitrate and other nitrates in solution. Materials are sensitised by air during the manufacturing process and have good fume characteristics and are suitable for wet conditions … (cont.)
Read more: designingbuildings
Why beam weapons don’t make sense
Beam weapons (or directed energy weapons as they are also called) were experimental in 2001, and still today they are largely in the developmental stage and are not deployed for military use except in anti-ballistic missile defense systems in the USA.
The other reason beam weapons don’t make sense is that even though beam weapons produce a strong electromagnetic wave, the wave is only present for a short time – while the beam weapon is deployed. Hence, it would be safe for workers to enter Ground Zero without the risk of being exposed to strong electromagnetic radiation, and developing cancer from that. So beam weapons would not explain the high rates of cancer found in workers and others.
In a nuking, radioactive dust remains in the area until it is removed. Radioactivity is present in debris too. So, while workers remain in the area of radioactive debris and dust, even long after the nuking has taken place, they will be exposed to radiation and can develop cancer as a result.
Therefore, many more people are likely to acquire cancer in a nuking site than in a site that has been struck by a beam weapon.
National firefighters study in America
The September 11 attacks were a one-time event. The studies that show an increase in cancer relate to lifetime exposure while working as a firefighter. It is unprecedented that a single event like the 9/11 attacks can cause such an increase in cancer.
Masks were also worn and the air quality was monitored for toxins. No unacceptably high levels of air toxins were found. This is the reason many workers were not given medical coverage for their conditions. Their illnesses were not consistent with the levels of exposure to toxins (PAHC, asbestos, silicates, PBCs, etc) measured in the air. No alarms were sounded about unacceptably high levels of air toxins, and work was not interrupted.
Masks would have reduced inhalation of most toxins, including asbestos, to acceptable levels.
Furthermore, some people who were not exposed to the air at the WTC because they worked at the Fresh Kills landfill site, unloading and sorting out debris, also got high rates of cancer.
Additionally, the high cancer incidence, if due to toxins in the air, would be more evenly distributed over New York State, as air, and the toxins within it, quickly disperses. The WTC clean-up was, in essence, an ordinary demolition job. No demolition of high rises is known to cause this catastrophic picture of high cancer rates.
In addition, the rate of increase in cancer (it tripled between 2012 and 2015) is rarely seen in cancer situations caused by air toxins. The rapid increase in cancer rates match that seen in radiation exposure in nuclear accidents. Radiation is one of the most carcinogenic agents known to man.
Radiation-induced mesothelioma can have a short latency period of 0-4 years after exposure. This sort of latency period is never seen in asbestosis-induced mesothelioma, so asbestos can be ruled out as a cause in the several people who acquired mesothelioma in less than 10 years after their work at the site. One worker, 41 years of age, died of mesothelioma 3 years after 9/11. The latency period for asbestos-caused mesothelioma is 15-30 years.
The increase in leukemias among those exposed at the WTC site is higher than that seen among Hiroshima survivors.