Plane Missile

Summary of attacks

The Twin Towers were hit by missiles from the planes. Missiles had been loaded at the 9/11 airports by airport sayanim working for ICTS, an airport company with links to Israel.

Either:

  1. Missile launch tubes, much like the ones used for anti-tank missiles, were loaded into the cargo hold of the planes or specially designed bay ports under the belly, close to the wings.
  2. Missiles were loaded and locked onto rail launchers either within the cargo hold or on the underbelly of the aircraft

The pictures obtained of the plane in the South Tower attack are indeterminate.

The missile only had to be connected to the wires of the launch tubes for the missile to be ready for firing.

Target information would have been programmed into the missiles if the missiles were fired and/or detonated using a program.

Timing of detonation was controlled with

  1. a proximity fuse or
  2. by an infrared detection homing system
  3. radar homing system
  4. manually using a spotter drone

If a homing system was used, radio signal of a certain frequency could have been emitted from the target floors. Upon sensing this signal with its radar sensor, a detonation is triggered. This information would have been pre-programmed into the missile’s control system before loading.

If the missile had been fired from within the plane. The missile would have easily sliced through the thin aluminium frame of the Boeing planes. The inertia of the missile could have accounted for its path straight through the WTC and its ejection to the outside of the tower.

The planes were flown by remote control to the towers.

Homing devices had probably been inserted in the infrastructure of several levels, around Floors 90 and 91, by Mossad agents posing as art students and also possibly posing as movers. These homing devices would have been for guiding the plane’s flight as well as guiding the missile after it had been fired. They could have been also used for the timing of the firing and/or detonation of the missile.

Bombs were also planted in the walls to weaken the building and set off a cascade of exploding, disintegrating and collapsing floors, starting off at the plane strike floors.

A helicopter was hired by the spying art group. This was done either to obtain coordinates or infrared images and other needed data for the missile attack and plane collision, or it was done to test homing systems, assessing the strength of signals, or for testing the suitability of a UAV acting as a spotter plane or for all these reasons above. Any information of this nature (infrared imaging, GPS coordinates and/or radar measurements) would have been programmed into the missile control head if homing systems were used as well as the plane’s flight control.

The missile on the plane was probably of an anti-submarine type. The missile involved would have to be capable of puncturing through a grid of thick steel surfaces.

If the missile was detonated by a proximity fuze, information about the target was obtained as described above and programmed into the missile.

The design of the attack was such that the missile was supposed to detonate right before impact of the plane with the WTC. The missile would punch a round hole in the wall that would allow the plane to enter or make it look as if the plane had gone into the building. In some photos and videos of the South Tower attack, a missile part can be seen shooting out in an arc from the opposite side to the plane strike.

If a proximity fuze had been used and the missile not launched from the plane, the thrust of the plane’s forward trajectory and the missile’s inertia would have propelled the missile forward through the building to come out the other side.

An “ordnance flash” – bright white ball of light with an orange edge – was seen just prior to the plane FL175 hitting the South Tower, and is caught on videos. See below.

If there was firing of the missile from its launcher tube or rails from the plane, the same trigger mechanism for the detonation of the missile could have been used for the firing, if that technology was available to the Israelis at that time.

Manual firing is a little more uncertain in its timing. However, accuracy can be improved by a spotter aircraft hovering nearby recording the approach of the Boeing plane and relaying the information via SATLINK to the ground operators who control the plane and the missile on board the plane.

As already mentioned, that might have been another reason for the helicopter trip that the Israeli spies made: to test the flight of a helicopter close to the tower and see whether a drone helicopter would be suitable for the task of acting as a spotter of the Boeing plane attack on the tower. A white plane was also observed in the Pennsylvania attack and also in the Pentagon attack. These planes could have been drones that acted as spotters and sent information to ground control to help them with the timing of the missile firing and/or detonation. There were a few helicopters hovering around the towers at the time of their explosions. These can be seen in Rick Siegel’s “911 Eyewitness” video.

However, for more precise timing of the firing and detonation of the missile, computer programmed control of the firing would be necessary. However, the Israelis may not have had the technology to do this. Furthermore, human control would have to override any computer program control in the end, as there might have been a need to change plans, for example in the case of something going wrong with the plan and the timing of the firing of the missile needing to be changed. For example, in the Pennsylvania attack, the mission seemed to have gone awry, and probably had to be aborted and the plane deliberately made to crash in Shanksville. In this case, the missile on board the plane was detonated in situ, destroying most of the plane and the evidence onboard it. Detonation was probably achieved under human control with the help of images relayed via a spotter plane, probably a UAV, sending information about FL93’s flight to ground control.

Whatever the means of firing/detonation, the perpetrators’ main goal was to disguise the use of a missile as much as possible.

If the missile had been loaded into the cargo hold, it’s likely the missile was detonated while it was still in the plane.

More important than accurate guidance of the missile was the size of the missile. It had to have a payload that would be able to punch a big enough hole in the WTC tower and the Pentagon for the plane to enter. It also had to be powerful enough to destroy the planes as much as possible, in order to hide any evidence left behind on the plane. It’s highly possible depleted uranium weapons were used as missiles on the planes. This would account for the molten metal seen pouring out of the building in some pictures after the plane strike in the North Tower.

Questions that remain are: were the missiles fired or did they explode in place on the plane; were the missiles attached to the undercarriage of the planes, leaving a tell-tale bulge or were they fully contained within the cargo hold or elsewhere and discharged from it?

If they had been fired, what was the firing mechanism involved? What triggered the firing? How was the missile’s detonation controlled? Was it done by a human pushing a button or was it done by a computer program?


Plane hits the South Tower

VIDEO: 911 – WTC South Tower Plane Crash – abridged Dailymotion

COMMENT: The plane looks unbalanced. The fuselage under the left wing looks abnormally large.


Flash before plane hits the tower and extra fuselage piece on the underbelly

VIDEO: Flash seen before plane hits the tower Dailymotion | Youtube

(Video from Loose Change). Flash seen 0:40 and extra piece of fuselage at 1:29.


Anti-ship missile

VIDEO: Deadly Kh-35 Russian Anti Ship Missile Documentary Dailymotion | Youtube

From the video:

2:10 – 2:17 “Ka-27 helicopter can be armed with 3 Kh-35. Just one rotor-craft can seriously spoil life of enemy’s cruiser.

3:15 “The missile is in the cargo-launch container now”

3:17 “It needs only to be installed on a launching platform, to connect wires and the missile is ready for launch.”

4:05 “Missile approaches the target by illuminating it with missile’s radar.”

5:49 “one such missile can kill a destroyer”

5:57 “A launching container can be installed on ships and on coastal missile systems”

6:00 “Airplanes and helicopters can also be armed with this missile.”

7:03 “Another merit of the missile is that its warhead detonates only several microseconds after contact. This way an explosion doesn’t occur on ship’s surface, but inside.”

actual-missile-kh-35

Kh-35 self-guided missile

kh-35 on truck.jpg

Missile transported on a truck

kh-35-1-million-dollars-model

A small-scale model of the Kh-35 in launch tube at an arms fair

deadly-kh-35-loaded-sml.gif

Even a helicopter can be armed with 3 of the Kh-35 missiles

cargo-launch-container

Cargo launch container

missile-is-in-cargo-launch-container

“Missile is put in the cargo-launch container”

connect wires.jpg

3:17 “It needs only to be installed on a launching platform, to connect wires and the missile is ready for launch.”

airplanes-helicopters601.jpg

6:01 “Airplanes and helicopters can also be armed with this missile”

illuminating it with missile radar 405.jpg

4:05 “Missile approaches the target by illuminating it with missile’s radar”

deadly-l35-launched-sml.gif

Missile fired from a launcher on the ground

launch-one-deadly-kh35-sml.gif

Missile fired from a launch tube

missile-trail.jpg

Missile trail

pentagon_background1_mdf_inset

White trail at the Pentagon crash

338-whiteflash2

White flash of the missile

flash_spiegel

Image: White flash right before the moment of impact


Launch tubes and containers

Torpedo tube – Wikipedia

A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes.

There are two main types of torpedo tube: underwater tubes fitted to submarines and some surface ships, and deck-mounted units (also referred to as torpedo launchers) installed aboard surface vessels. Deck-mounted torpedo launchers are usually designed for a specific type of torpedo, while submarine torpedo tubes are general-purpose launchers, and are often also capable of deploying mines and cruise missiles. Most modern launchers are standardised on a 12.75-inch (324 mm) diameter for light torpedoes (deck mounted aboard ship) or a 21-inch (533 mm) diameter for heavy torpedoes (underwater tubes), although other sizes of torpedo tube have been used: see Torpedo classes and diameters.


Mark 32 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes – Wikipedia

“The Mark 32 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes (Mk 32 SVTT) system is a torpedo launching system designed for the United States Navy.”

“The tubes are designed to be fired remotely, but manual firing controls are fitted as a backup to all but the Spruance-class destroyer’s Mod 15 sets, as all aspects of the tubes’ operation are controlled remotely.”

“The launch is powered by compressed air in a rear flask, which also doubles as each tube’s breech, and the torpedoes are fire-and-forget weapons.”

“Each triple-tube set weighs around 2,230 pounds (1,010 kg) unloaded, with variations between mods.”

Wikipedia

mk46_torpedo_launch-sml.jpg

IMG: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/MK46_torpedo_launch.jpg

URL: http://www.wikiwand.com/en/Mark_32_Surface_Vessel_Torpedo_Tubes


Fire-and-forget – Wikipedia

“Fire-and-forget is a type of missile guidance which does not require further guidance after launch such as illumination of the target or wire guidance, and can hit its target without the launcher being in line-of-sight of the target.”

“Generally, information about the target is programmed into the missile just prior to launch. This can include coordinates, radar measurements (including velocity), or an infrared image of the target.”

“After it is fired, the missile guides itself by some combination of gyroscopes and accelerometers, GPS, organic active radar homing, and infrared homing optics.”

“Some systems offer the option of either continued input from the launch platform or fire-and-forget.”

Wikipedia

pars-3

Modern PARS 3 LR fire-and-forget missile of the German Army Wikipedia

nag missile.JPG

Modern fire-and-forget Nag missile of the Indian Armed Forces Wikipedia


Under the belly of the plane

missileonunderbelly

Missile on the right side under the fuselage of the plane that hit the South Tower

missile on the right side.jpg

On the right side of the plane, near where the wing’s attachment to the plane, a shape like a missile can be made out.

In a picture captured of Flight 175, some anomalies have been noted on the undersurface of the plane that people have attributed to the normal contour of the plane, but others have said are due to “pod” missiles attached to the planes (see this site for pod discussions).


Flight 175

Various irregularities can be seen in this picture of FL175 as it approaches the South Tower: a lighter-colored rectangular area in the forward section, a large dark shadow in the middle section between the root of the wings, a light colored squarish shadow in the posterior section of the plane.

Below is a picture of a Boeing 767 for comparison, showing the underside of the fuselage:


Boeing 767

Below is another picture of FL175 as it heads towards WTC2. Some conspiracy theorists believe the dark shadows indicate a missile pod located under the belly of the plane, on the right hand side.


Flight 175

A closeup of the plane that crashed into the South Tower (WTC 2):


Flight 175

Another photo of FL175 which shows anomalies that some have speculated are a missile pod. It could be the wheel flaps opening to release the missile or cargo door opening for the same purpose.

Headless planes

In the two photos above, the heads of the planes seem to be missing. They could have been edited out, to remove any evidence of a missile shooting outward from the plane. However, some video stills show something that could be likely be a missile flash.

White flash that looks like an ordnance flash right before the moment of impact

VIDEO: J-20 stealth fighter with Chinese indigenious missile launch rail-abridged Dailymotion


The role of spies

Spies infiltrated WTC and planted homing devices as well as got readings of the target for accurate detonation of the WTC.

Spies also planted bombs in the walls of the WTC from Floors 90-91 to detonate and start the crumbling of the WTC at those levels to simulate a collapse caused by plane strikes.

Silverstein was involved in giving permission and ease of access to these floors to the spies.

The spies had insiders, “sayanim”, in the Lower Manhattan Council helping make the art project look legitimate. The art project was a cover for the spies’ activities.

Spies also rented a helicopter as part of this art project to get coordinates and readings from outside the WTC towers and other information needed for the plane and missile strike of the Twin Towers.

Spies also got the information for the Pentagon. As a cover, they also spied on military installations around the country as a camouflage.

The missile was controlled by remote control and had been pre-programmed with target information.

Spies in the 9/11 airports all of whom were working for the Mossad Israeli company ICTS were involved in loading and concealing the weapon on the plane. Israeli agents were in control of ground operations of the 9/11 planes, such as the loading of luggage and plane maintenance and checking.

Missile was probably loaded into the cargo hold. First it was placed in a load container tube. It had a proximity fuse, which meant that the missile would be fired from the loading tube at the right time, just before the plane struck the WTC. The homing systems and pre-programmed target information made the missile hit the target accurately and at the right time.

Spies in the mainstream TV networks altered the captured videos of the plane strikes, especially the second plane strike on the WTC towers. The South Tower strike video was altered to remove frames that showed the missile shooting out of the plane. That’s why the plane’s head is absent in frames right before the plane hits the tower.

There was no need for the missile to be ejected or released from the plane prior to firing as the plane was meant to be destroyed at the time of the detonation of the plane.

From the videos below and MarkDotzler

  • Group of art students were doing art projects on floors 90 and 91 of North Tower
  • Gelatin was the name of this group
  • Gelatin changed to Gelitin in 2005
  • Another group of art students were also at the WTC, named E-Team
  • Stunt involved doing construction work on these floors
  • The art students were camping inside the WTC; they had tents set up
  • Name of the book about their art projects was “The B-thing”
  • One stunt had them building a balcony outside of the WTC
  • They had a team filming them from a helicopter that flew right up to these floors in the tower
  • Art students were part of the Lower Manhattan Cultural Arts program
  • Record of these art students and involvement in the arts program but no record of these people in the Lower Manhattan Cultural Arts site
  • Art students were German and Austrian and two were Asian racially
  • Art book was released in Austria – limited edition
  • They had blueprints of the WTC
  • 3-4 tons of boxes on the 90th floor around them
  • Full access to the building: construction passes, security passes
  • Blueprints broken down with times and places to hide, security checkpoints and pass times
  • One of the art students called Hamas Fatih (spelling?) was an Israeli military intelligence officer
  • Four of these art students were arrested after 9/11; non-Israelis who are connected to 9/11
  • Fatih rented two Hollywood apartments close to the mail drop of Mohammed Atta when he was living in L.A. at the same time
  • Fatih was carrying a bank book that showed more than $100,000 deposits from December 2000 to the first quarter of 2001
  • Other bankbooks showed withdrawals of $80,000
  • Apartment served as a crash pad for at least two other art students; their addresses were where Mohammed Atta had his mail drop
  • Fatih rented an apartment two blocks from Atta when he was in Florida
  • DEA was tracing art students because they penetrated military installations including bases and Pentagon
  • DEA was also tracking an ecstasy ring that led them to these art students
  • When it was found out that they were tracking an ex-Israeli military spy ring the investigation became top secret.

6:01: Israeli art students in WTC connected to September 11, 2001
“Hamas Fatih [was] living blocks away from the suspected hijackers on 9/11 according to the official story … the reason why that’s interesting is because remember, Sept 21st, 2001, [it was] reported that FBI director Robert Mueller acknowledged that some of those behind the attacks may have stolen the identification of the people they believed to be the hijackers.”

Gelatin Art Group 

VIDEO: “The Mysterious Gelatin Art Group Living in WTC prior to 9/11″ Dailymotion | Youtube

Israeli art students in WTC connected to September 11, 2001

VIDEO: Israeli art students in WTC connected to September 11, 2001 Dailymotion

9:11 Mossad Agents were in the twin towers

VIDEO: 9:11 Mossad Agents were in the twin towers Dailymotion

The Art Project – Gelitin B-thing E-team

VIDEO: The Art Project – Gelitin B-thing E-team Dailymotion

art-students2-sml.jpg

URL: http://www.markdotzler.com/Mark_Dotzler/WTC_Artists.html

poised_photos_s-media-sml.jpg

http://www.markdotzler.com/Mark_Dotzler/WTC_Artists.html

student03-1

http://www.markdotzler.com/Mark_Dotzler/WTC_Artists.html

id-9-sml.jpg

http://www.markdotzler.com/Mark_Dotzler/WTC_Artists.html

911-gelatin-art-students-in-wtc-tower_02

9/11 BOMBSHELL: Cheney, Halliburton, Mossad, Art Students, Bomb Experts

911-gelatin-art-students-in-wtc-tower_04

9/11 BOMBSHELL: Cheney, Halliburton, Mossad, Art Students, Bomb Experts

e-team

http://canspeccy.blogspot.kr/2016/08/more-about-art-students-who-occupied.html

From the video “The Art Project – Gelitin B-thing E-team”

e-team-10-428-sml

11:49 Two members of the art group in the helicopter

helicopter-e-team_907-1-mdf

9:07 The helicopter got quite close to the WTC

e-team-9_433-sml

A member of the art group in the helicopter

b-thing_221b-1-sml

2:21 Helicopter hovered near the 91st floor where the art group was gathered

e-team4_1155-mdf

11:55 Members of the art group stood at the windows while the helicopter hovered near them outside the WTC

helicopter-e-team_11491-sml

11:49 Member of art group took this picture from the helicopter

Helicopter drones

zoomcopter-spyring-sml.jpg

Israeli “art students” were selling these zoom copters at various malls.

zoom.jpg

“Why is “Dancing Israelis” Mossad agent Dominik Suter associated with a storage unit full of toy helicopters in Bayonne, NJ? Only his katsa knows for sure.” Zionism Stinks

VIDEO: Rick Siegel 9-11 Eyewitness-helicopter drones Dailymotion

chopper10

Helicopters appear at key moments, for example, when explosions occur, and right before the South Tower explodes.

chopper12

In this still, the helicopter emits a light. This happens right before the South Tower falls.

chopper13

As the caption says, it seems to be “Mission accomplished”. The South Tower fell at 9:59 am right before the helicopter seen in the picture above this one emits a light as it passes over the towers.

chopper15.jpg

The South Tower collapses.

chopper18.jpg

The “bird” goes back and forth near the smoking tower.

chopper22.jpg

In this video still, a man is reporting that a helicopter was seen at the Pentagon shortly before a fireball rose into the sky.


North Tower levels that were hit by the strike

800px-world_trade_center_9-11_attaccopy_mod-sml.jpg

NIST

d76-sml.jpg

NIST; Damage and Failure Modes of Structural Steel Components (http://wtc.nist.gov/NISTNCSTAR1-3Cchaps.pdf)

c95_mod-sml.jpg

NIST: North face of WTC 1. The floors that are damaged by the plane strike are the 93 to 95th floors.

__________________________________________________________

Operation Aphrodite and Operation Anvil

 

VIDEO: Operation Aphrodite – Blueprint for Sept 11 Attacks (History Channel) Youtube

During World War II, Americans carried out a program of using remote-controlled planes as missiles. Planes were fitted out with automatic pilots, radio control and TV sensors. Since there was no way to safely launch the aircraft unmanned, the pilots had to fly the plane for part of the distance, and when they had reached a certain point in the journey, they ejected from the plane by parachute. Before leaving the plane, the pilots transferred the plane to radio controlled flight, and armed the bomb payload. After this, a “mothership” controlled the flight of the planes.

VIDEO:  Operation Aphrodite “Weary Willy”  Youtube

Aphroditie-droneb17.jpg

Aphrodite drone at takeoff Wikipedia

Operation Aphrodite

Aphrodite and Anvil were the World War II code names of United States Army Air Forces and United States Navy operations to use B-17 and PB4Y bombers as precision-guided munitions against bunkers and other hardened/reinforced enemy facilities, such as those targeted during Operation Crossbow.

The plan called for B-17 aircraft that had been taken out of operational service: various nicknames existed such as “robot”, “baby”, “drone” or “weary Willy” – to be loaded to capacity with explosives, and flown by radio control into bomb-resistant fortifications such as German U-boat pens and V-weapon sites.

It was hoped that it would match the British success with Tallboy and Grand Slam ground penetration bombs but the project was dangerous, expensive and unsuccessful. Of 14 missions flown, none resulted in the successful destruction of a target. Many aircraft lost control and crashed or were shot down by flak, and many pilots were killed. However, a handful of aircraft scored near misses. One notable pilot death was that of Lt Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr., USNR, the elder brother of future US President John F. Kennedy.

The program effectively ceased on January 27, 1945 when General Spaatz sent an urgent message to Doolittle: “Aphrodite babies must not be launched against the enemy until further orders”.

Proposal

By late 1943, General Henry H. Arnold had directed Brigadier General Grandison Gardner’s electronic engineers at Eglin Field, Florida, to outfit war-weary bombers with automatic pilots so that they could be remotely controlled. The plan was first proposed to Major General James H. Doolittle some time in 1944. Doolittle approved the plan for Operation Aphrodite on June 26, and assigned the 3rd Bombardment Division with preparing and flying the drone aircraft, which was to be designated BQ-7. In the U.S. Navy’s similar project, Operation Anvil, the drone was designated BQ-8.

Final assignment of responsibility was given to the 562nd Bomb Squadron at RAF Honington in Suffolk. Similarly, on July 6, 1944 the US Navy Special Attack Unit (SAU-1) was formed under ComAirLant, with Commander James A. Smith, Officer in Charge, for transfer without delay to Commander Fleet Air Wing 7 in Europe to attack German V-1 and V-2 sites with PB4Y-1s converted to assault drones.

Procedure

After completing 80 323rd BS missions, Aphrodite B-17F (The Careful Virgin) was used against Mimoyecques but impacted short of target by controller error.

Old Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers were stripped of all normal combat armament and all other non-essential gear (armor, guns, bomb racks, transceiver, seats, etc.), relieving about 12,000 lb (5,400 kg) of weight. To allow easier exit when the pilot and co-pilot were to parachute out, the canopy was removed. Azon radio remote-control equipment was added, with two television cameras fitted in the cockpit to allow a view of both the ground and the main instrumentation panel to be transmitted back to an accompanying CQ-17 ‘mothership’.

The drone was loaded with explosives weighing more than twice that of a B-17’s normal bomb payload. The British Torpex used for the purpose was itself 50% more powerful than TNT.

A relatively remote location in Norfolk, RAF Fersfield, was the launch site. Initially, RAF Woodbridge had been selected for its long runway, but the possibility of a damaged aircraft that diverted to Woodbridge for landings colliding with a loaded drone caused concerns. The remote control system was insufficient for safe takeoff, so each drone was taken aloft by a volunteer pilot and a volunteer flight engineer to an altitude of 2,000 ft (600 m) for transfer of control to the CQ-17 operators. After successful turnover of control of the drone, the two-man crew would arm the payload and parachute out of the cockpit. The ‘mothership’ would then direct the missile to the target.

When the training program was complete, the 562nd Squadron had ten drones and four “motherships”.

Operation Aphrodite

783px-B-17-operation aphrodite-sml

After completing 80 323rd BS missions, Aphrodite B-17F (The Careful Virgin) was used against Mimoyecques [a German underground missile site] but impacted short of target by controller error. Wikipedia

VIDEO: WWII’s Operation Aphrodite  Youtube

Type Radio-controlled bombers as guided missiles
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1944
Used by United States Army Air Forces (Aphrodite)
United States Navy (Anvil)
Specifications
Warhead Payload: 30,000 LB (13,600 kg) Torpex

Guidance
system
Azon (TV sensor, radio control)

Castor (radar & TV sensors, radio control)

Wikipedia

Videos: Operation Aphrodite

VIDEO: Operation Aphrodite Youtube

 

_________________________________________________________

Radio-control system of detonation of ordnance

VIDEO: WWII RADIO CONTROLLED DRONE AIRCRAFT TESTS PROJECT HERMIT 40800 Youtube

Azon 

Azon was one of the world’s first guided weapons. It was deployed by the Allies. At the same time, Germans deployed the Fritz X.

It was developed in the latter stages of World War II.

The Azon was a 454 kg bomb that had been fitted with a radio-controlled tail fin. The tail gave the missile the radio guidance capability. Gyroscopes were mounted in the tail package.

The bomb’s receiver and control system were powered by a battery.

When used in combat, it was dropped from an aircraft.

From Wikipedia:

AZON

AZON (or Azon), from “azimuth only”, was one of the world’s first guided weapons, deployed by the Allies and contemporary with the German Fritz X.

Officially designated VB-1 (“Vertical Bomb 1”), it was invented by Major Henry J. Rand and Thomas J. O’Donnell during the latter stages of World War II as the answer to the difficult problem of destroying the narrow wooden bridges that supported much of the Burma Railway.

AZON was essentially a 1,000 lb (454 kg) general-purpose AN-M65 bomb with a quadrilateral 4-fin style radio controlled tail fin design as part of a “tail package” to give the desired guidance capability, allowing adjustment of the vertical trajectory in the yaw axis, giving the Azon unit a lateral steering capability (meaning it could only steer left and right, and could not alter its pitch or rate of fall). This lack of any pitch control meant that the bombardier still had to accurately release it with a bombsight to ensure it could not fall short of or beyond the target. The “tail package” bolted onto the standard bomb warhead, in place of the usual sheet-metal fixed fins; this concept was an early iteration of a now common method of making modern guided bombs (such as the JDAM, the Paveway family, the KAB-500L, etc): making the guidance and control units as separate pieces that attach to the tail and/or nose of a standard “iron bomb”, making it into a guided weapon. There were gyroscopes mounted in the bomb’s added tail package that made it an Azon unit, to autonomously stabilize it in the roll axis via operating a pair of ailerons,[1] and a radio control system to operate the proportional-control rudders, to directly control the bomb’s direction of lateral aim, with the antennas for the tail-mounted receiver unit built into the diagonal support struts of the tail surface assembly.[1] The bomb’s receiver and control system were powered by a battery which had around three minutes of battery life. The entire setup in the added “tail package” was sufficient to guide the weapon from a 5,000-foot (1,500 m) drop height to the target. Situated on the tail of the bomb was a 600,000-candela flare which also left behind a noticeable smoke trail, to enable the bombardier to observe and control it from the control aircraft. When used in combat, it was dropped from a modified Consolidated B-24 Liberator, with earlier development test drops of the Azon in the United States sometimes using the B-17 Flying Fortress as the platform.[1] Some ten crews, of the 458th Bombardment Group, based at RAF Horsham St Faith, were trained to drop the device for use in the European theater.

The 493rd Bomb Squadron also dropped Azon bombs in Burma in early 1945 from similarly-modified B-24s, based at Pandaveswar Airfield, India, with considerable success, fulfilling the designers’ original purpose for the ordnance.

Wikipedia

AZON, the first smart bomb developed by the United States.
Type Smart bombs
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1944
Used by United States
Wars World War II
Specifications
Weight VB-1: 1,000 pounds (450 kg)
VB-2: 2,000 pounds (910 kg)[1]

Operational
range
5,000 feet (1,500 m)
Guidance
system
MCLOS radio control system

Azon_-_the_worlds_first_smart_bomb

The world’s first smart bomb

VB-1_Azon_2_(ORDATA).jpg

Components of Azon

Video: Smart bombs – guided bombs

VIDEO: Smart bombs (History Channel) Youtube

__________________________________________________________

Quoted from US Navy Gunnery and Ordnance:

Above-Water Torpedo Tubes

Function

Torpedo tubes serve the following purposes:

  1. House and protect the torpedo (including heating in cold weather) until the instant of firing.
  2. Provide means for setting torpedo gyro angle, running depth, and, where required, torpedo speed as necessary, up to the instant of firing.
  3. Expel the torpedo with sufficient force to clear the firing ship and with such velocity and direction that it will remain on its firing course until its engine develops enough power for self-propulsion.
  4. As expulsion starts, trigger the torpedo so as to start its engine and gyro.

URL: http://www.eugeneleeslover.com/USNAVY/CHAPTER-12-J.html

g_page_315_figure_12j1-sml.jpg

21-inch Above-Water Torpedo Tube Mark 14

Quote:

“Torpedoes are expelled from each barrel individually by an impulse charge fired in the firing mechanism on top of the barrel. A passage from the firing mechanism leads to the space between the door and the torpedo. Normally, charges are fired electrically from the bridge, but they can be fired by percussion at the tube if necessary. Each black-powder impulse charge is contained in a special 3-inch case about 13 inches long.”

“Atop the barrels are a seat for the trainer and gyro setter, the train controls, and the sight and fire control apparatus. Also on top of the barrels, and thus within easy reach of the crew, are the gyro-setting, depth-setting and speed-setting mechanisms.”

http://www.eugeneleeslover.com/USNAVY/CHAPTER-12-J.html

g_page_316_figure_12j2-sml.jpg

Quote:

“They are air-fired and are suitable for launching only torpedoes having electrically set torpedo controls. The breech and muzzle doors arc so interlocked that firing can occur only when the breech door is closed and locked and the muzzle door opened. The torpedo control cable enters the tube through a special electrical terminal plug mounted in the breech door. The door connector is in two parts. One part is permanently installed in the center of the door, while the inner half is affixed to the torpedo cable. The two halves are coupled together after the torpedo is loaded into the tube. The cable is cut by the forward motion of the torpedo at launching.”

http://www.eugeneleeslover.com/USNAVY/CHAPTER-12-J.html


A torpedo launcher tube weighs around 300 kg

800px-mark_32_sml.jpg

Mark 32 torpedo launcher: it’s capable of firing light-weight torpedoes against enemy submarines

URL: http://www.naval-technology.com/news/newsrans-hobart-class-awd-demonstrates-torpedo-launcher-capability


Torpedos

fig002b.jpg

Mark 14 Type torpedo showing the location of the interior mechanisms

URL: http://archive.hnsa.org/doc/torpedo/

zQyuvqz8raCR0sigEFoR3oXXXL4j3HpexhjNOf_P3YmryPKwJ94QGRtDb3Sbc6KY.jpeg

A Spanish submarine torpedo S-80: shows a SAT COM link 22 for remote control

URL: http://www.corlobe.tk/spip.php?article33785


Mark 48 torpedo – Wikipedia

  • American submarine-launched torpedoes
  • new version of weapon known as Mk-48 Mod 4 was introduced in 1988
  • launched from submarine torpedo tubes
  • missile is guided from a submarine by wires attached to the torpedo
  • also can use own sensores to perform programmed search and attack procedures
  • torpedo’s sensors can monitor electrical and magnetic fields

Wikipedia

641px-mk_48_torpedo_maintenance_1982-sml.jpg

Technicians perform maintenance on a Mark 48 torpedo

URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_48_torpedo


Triggering of detonation of missile

Proximity fuze – Wikipedia

mk53_fuze-sml.jpg

  • proximity fuze  that detonates a missile when the distance reaches a certain value
  • designed for use on targets such as planes, ships and ground forces
  • have a sophisticated trigger mechanism
  • the fuze can be miniaturized
  • alternative name is “VT”: could mean variable time
  • munitions before proximity fuzes were invented were set to explode at a given time after firing but this could produce a late or early explosion
  • VT fuzes were reliable in exploding at the right time

Sensor types

  • Radio: radio frequency sensing is the main sensing principle used in artillery shells. Artillery shell contains a micro-transmitter that emits a wave of 180-220 MHz. As the shell approaches a reflecting object, an interference pattern is created. Based on the pattern of this wave, an amplified signal is transmitted, which triggers a detonation once a certain amplitude is exceeded
  • Optical: some missiles use lasers to trigger detonation. Beams of laser light are projected perpendicular to the flight of the missile. Reflection of the energy that is beamed out back onto the missile when it passes the target triggers the detonation
  • Acoustic: microphone in a missile senses the characteristic frequency of an aircraft and triggers the detonation
  • Magnetic: magnetic sensing is used for large masses of iron such as ships.

Wikipedia

The proximity fuze system for detonation of the warhead could have been adapted for the firing of the missile from its launch canister on the plane. Information about the infrared


Kh-35

  • Russian anti-ship missile that can be launched from jets, helicopters, ships and land batteries with the help of a rocket booster
  • designed to attack vessels up to 5000 tonnes
  • propulsion unit is a turbofan engine
  • missile is guided to target at the final leg of trajectory by commands fed from active radar homing head and radio altimeter
  • target designation data can be introduced into the missile
  • flight mission data is inserted into missile control system after input of target coordinates
  • at a certain target range, the homing head is switched on to search for, lock on and track target
  • process of homing by the data fed from the homing head continues until hit is obtained
  • radar-seeker types also available

Wikipedia

800px-seeker_kh-35e_maks2005-sml

URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kh-35

800px-kh-35e_maq_maks2009-sml

URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kh-35


Infrared homing – Wikipedia 

  • Infrared homing uses infrared light emission from a target to track and follow it
  • Missiles that use this system are often called “heat-seekers”
  • Great strides in development in 70s and 80s
  • Infrared sensor package in the tip of the missile head is called the “seeker-head”

“Infrared homing is a passive weapon guidance system which uses the infrared (IR) light emission from a target to track and follow it. Missiles which use infrared seeking are often referred to as “heat-seekers”, since infrared is radiated strongly by hot bodies. Many objects such as people, vehicle engines and aircraft generate and emit heat, and as such, are especially visible in the infrared wavelengths of light compared to objects in the background.

Infrared seekers are passive devices, which, unlike radar, provide no indication that they are tracking a target. This makes them suitable for sneak attacks during visual encounters, or over longer ranges when used with a forward looking infrared system or similar cuing system. This makes heat-seekers extremely deadly; 90% of all United States air combat losses over the past 25 years have been due to infrared-homing missiles.[1] They are, however, subject to a number of simple countermeasures, most notably dropping flares behind the target to provide false heat sources. This only works if the pilot is aware of the missile, and modern seekers have rendered these increasingly ineffective even in that case.

The first IR devices were experimented with in the pre-World War II era. During the war, German engineers were working on heat seeking missiles and proximity fuses, but did not have time to complete development before the war ended. Truly practical designs did not become possible until the introduction of conical scanning and miniaturized vacuum tubes during the war. Anti-aircraft IR systems began in earnest in the late 1940s, but both the electronics and entire field of rocketry was so new that it required considerable development before the first examples entered service in the mid-1950s. These early examples had significant limitations and achieved very low success rates in combat during the 1960s. A new generation developed in the 1970s and 80s made great strides and significantly improved their lethality. The latest examples from the 1990s and on have the ability to attack targets out of their field of view (FOV), behind them, and even pick out vehicles on the ground.

The infrared sensor package on the tip or head of a heat-seeking missile is known as the seeker head. The NATO brevity code for an air-to-air infrared-guided missile launch is Fox Two.[2]

Wikipedia 


From Quora (quote):

Question:

“How many steps are required to arm and trigger an aircraft fired missile and what safeguards are there to prevent accidents?”

Answer:

Tim Hibbetts (Updated Mar 11, 2016):

“Zero to destruction in six steps.

The ordnance crews have to prep some weapons before they will work. This happens in the secret hollows of their sacred lairs. When transporting them in this state, it’s directly to the aircraft, often in special vehicles, or—in the case of the aircraft carrier—on special elevators. There are pins in place that prevent activation, reducing the chances of inadvertently having several wives collect survivor benefits.

Once mounted on the aircraft, prior to launch, the ordies pull the safety pins. You still can’t fire it.

There is a switch that is activated when the landing gear is compressed, indicating the aircraft is on the ground. This is going to inhibit several functions, one of which is weapons expenditure. Thank goodness.

Like unholstering a gun or dropping your trousers, you don’t activate the master arm switch unless you mean business and are near where the action is happening.

Pulling the trigger is the last step. Sometime that trigger is a button. This will still not make things go boom.

After enough distance or time, the fuzing will put the rest of the puzzle together and the magic is ready to happen. In the case of missiles, that means it has detected a target within the proximity of the warhead. If this doesn’t happen the thing will just keep going until this happens. Of course, the Earth has been a good sump for missiles.”

Quora


Automatic firing of missiles

Quote from Patents:

By Allen C. Hagelberg, Walter A. Lobitz

Publication date: August 1980

Anti-ship torpedo defense missile
US 4215630 A

“ABSTRACT: A ship anti-torpedo defense system includes a detecting device for detecting and locating an incoming threat, such as a torpedo, and an interrelated missile launching and control system for firing at least one warhead carrying missile into the path of the oncoming threat, the missile having an active acoustic fuze system including a highly directional sensing system for continuously monitoring the position and proximity of the incoming threat and for detonating the warhead at the optimum proximity of the incoming threat with the missile. The missile floats at a predetermined depth determined by the predetermined depth of the torpedo to be intercepted.”

“The control system carried within the rocket itself is schematically illustrated in FIG. 9. This system is an acoustic active directional pulse doppler echo ranging system operating in an ultrasonic frequency band. The system functions to fire the warhead when the target has both entered the lethal radius and reached an optimum firing position.”

“When the target threat criteria has been satisfied, a warhead fire pulse is generated by the microprocessor commanding the warhead fire control 74 to detonate the warhead.

The fire logic sub-system which is located in the microprocessor utilizes the information contained in the received pulse series to make the fire decision.”

us4215630-3-sml.png

https://www.google.com/patents/US4215630


Quote from Foxtrotalpha: “The Navy’s Smart New Stealth Anti-Ship Missile Can Plan Its Own Attack”

“[It] depicts generally how LRASM works and some of the capabilities it brings to the table. In it you will see its most prominent feature is that it will “intelligently” sense and avoid hostile threats via an on-board passive radio frequency and threat warning receiver. Additionally, LRASM is equipped with an on-board data-link, advanced artificial intelligence software, low probability of intercept radar, imaging infrared sensor and an inertial navigation system with embedded GPS. All of this is tied to the sneaky missile’s autopilot and cutting-edge computing core.”

Foxtrotalpha

Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM)

The video shows the coordination of SATLINK data and the firing, path projection and detonation of the missile.

VIDEO: Long Range Anti-Ship Missile (LRASM) Youtube

Published on 2 May 2016 by LockheedMartinVideos: “LRASM is a long range, precision-guided anti-ship missile leveraging off of the successful JASSM-ER heritage”


Autonomous firing of missile

From The Diplomat:

Is China Really Building Missiles With Artificial Intelligence?

  • “intelligent” weapon systems: autonomous systems
  • report in Chinese media about family of cruise missiles with AI capabilities
  • these missiles seek out targets in combat
  • “plug and play” missiles
  • tailor-made cruise missiles
  • “Technically, AI is any onboard intelligence that allows machines in combat to execute regular tasks”
  • “Modern-day combat requires war-fighters to operate with the active assistance from sensors and systems.”
  • “In practice, however, Artificial Intelligence is a term used for a combat system that has the ability to take targeting decisions. This is more in the nature of “who to target,” as opposed to “how to target”
  • “the LRASM is a replacement for the Harpoon missile (albeit a more powerful version) and a supposedly “intelligent” missile system.”
  • the missile makes its own decisions only after it receives critical targeting information from the command team.

TheDiplomat


Low Cost Autonomous Attack System – Wikipedia

The Low Cost Autonomous Attack System (LOCAAS). In 1998 the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Army Lockheed Martin began to examine the feasibility of a small, affordable cruise missile weapon for use against armoured and unarmoured vehicles, materiel and personnel, and if so develop a demonstration program.[1] The program has cost approx. $150,000,000 so far; the cost per unit is calculated to be $30,000 based on a production of 12,000 units.

After being launched from a weapon platform, it is guided by GPS/INS to the target general area, where it can loiter. A laser radar (LIDAR or LADAR) illuminates the targets, determines their range, and matches their 3-D geometry with pre-loaded signatures. The LOCAAS system then selects the highest priority target and selects the warhead’s mode for the best effect.[2]

It is part of the Small Bomb System (SBS) program. The LOCAAS has been cancelled.

Wikipedia


Quote from HowStuffWorks“How Smart Bombs Work”

Smart Bomb Basics

“A smart bomb is essentially an ordinary dumb bomb with a few major modifications. In addition to the usual fuze and explosive material, it has:

  • an electronic sensor system
  • a built-in control system (an onboard computer)
  • a set of adjustable flight fins
  • a battery”

“Up until relatively recently, most smart bombs were either TV/IR-guided orlaser-guided. Both types of bomb use visual sensors to locate ground targets.

A TV/IR-guided bomb has either a conventional television video camera or an infrared camera (for night vision) mounted to its nose. In remote-operation mode, the controller relays information through radio signals to a human operator, who is usually onboard the bomber plane. The remote operator relays commands to the control system to steer the bomb through the air — the bomb acts something like a remote-control plane. In this mode, the operator may launch the bomb without a specific target and sight, and then pick up the target from the video as the bomb gets closer to the ground.

In automatic mode, the pilot locates a target through the bomb’s video camera prior to launch and sends a signal to the bomb telling it to lock on to the target. The bomb’s control system steers the bomb so that the indicated target image always stays near the center of the video display. In this way, the bomb zeros in on the locked target automatically.

Laser-guided smart bombs work a little differently. Instead of a video camera sensor, the bomb has a laser seeker — an array of photo diodes. As you might expect, the photo diodes are sensitive to a particular frequency of laser light. For the bomb to see its target, a separate human operator, either on the ground or in the air, has to “paint” the designated target with a high-intensity laser beam. The laser beam reflects off the target, and the laser seeker picks it up.

The laser designator has its own unique pulse pattern. Before dropping the bomb, the bomber aircraft computer tells the missile’s control system the specific pulse pattern (via an electronic “umbilical” connection to the bomb). Once the bomb is in the air, the control system is only interested in laser energy with this pulse pattern. The control system’s basic goal is to steer the bomb so that the reflected laser beam is hitting near the center of the photo diode array. This keeps the bomb heading straight toward the target.

Both of these systems can be highly effective, but they have one major drawback: The bomb sensor has to maintain visual contact with the target. If cloud cover or obstacles get in the way, the bomb will most likely veer off course.

We’ll explore today’s smart bombs next.

smart-bomb-1.jpg

The GBU-15, a TV/IR smart bomb PHOTO COURTESY U.S. AIR FORCE

smart-bomb-4.jpg

The Ground Laser Target Designator II (GLTD II), used to direct laser-guided smart weapons PHOTO COURTESY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

http://science.howstuffworks.com/smart-bomb1.htm


Quoted from Quora:

How is a missile fired from a fighter jet? How does it function exactly?

Answer:

  1. How it is fired: Missiles can be carried externally as is most common or internally inside the aircraft, as with the old F-106 and the newer stealth aircraft. Aside from opening the fuselage doors and extending the missile out into the slipstream as with those type aircraft with internal carriage, their firing methods are essentially the same.

The two main ways to launch and fire a missile are either firing it straight ahead on its railing like an AIM-9 Sidewinder – a rail launch, or by ejecting it down and away from rack holding the missile with two pistons, and then firing it – an ejector launch. In a rail launch, the missile fires while still attached to its launcher. On an ejection launch, the missile is ejected away from the launcher. Then a thin wire spools out, and when it reaches maximum extension if will trip the firing sequence, well away from the aircraft.

  1. How it functions: Generally there are two types of air-to-air missiles: Active radar guided missiles and passive seeker missiles, usually based in IR guidance.

With radar missiles there are two further types, active and semi-active, or more often a combination of both. An active missile will have its own small radar to paint the target and then guide off the radar return. Not needing the fighter to illuminate the target, this would be a “launch and leave” missile.

The other type of radar guided missile is a beam rider. The launch aircraft illuminates the target with its own radar, and the missile receives this reflected energy off the target and follows that reflected beam to the target. However the more common type of missile will initially follow the fighter’s reflected energy for some period of time and distance, then it will go “active” itself, following its own internal radar return from the target.

IR missiles are much simpler (and less expensive and lighter) than the radar guided ones. They passively with their own seeker head lock on to a heat or similar source and just follow it to its source.

There are two ways to destroy a target, either by a direct hit or by proximity fusing. With a Proximity fuze the missile does not have to hit the target, but only come close. The missile will have a sensor that will detect a Doppler shift as it passes by the target, causing it to detonate.

Quora

Rail launch: AIM-9 Sidewinder

VIDEO: AIM-9 Sidewinder Dailymotion


Fire-control system – Wikipedia

A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. It performs the same task as a human gunner firing a weapon, but attempts to do so faster and more accurately.

Wikipedia


Computer-controlled firing

Quote from a research paper on IEEE Xplore:

Design of portable integrated fire control computer (PIFCC) for indonesian navy

Abstract:

Fire Control Computer must exist in a weapon system either manual or automatic control. In joint military operations require interoperability between land forces, sea forces and air forces. This interoperability requires integration of a reliable fire control computers for operational success. The integration contains of data such as own position, target position, target characteristics, firing analysis were obtained from various sensors and sent using encrypted data link. This paper gives a design of an integrated fire control computer that can be used as a portable equipment for naval artillery on land, sea and air. Initial design testing of Portable Integrated Fire Control Computer (PIFCC) were conducted during the missile firing exercise. The parameters compared are the Radar Cross Section (RCS) missile, RCS targets, geographical position, target range and azimuth between PIFCC and Missile Fire Control System (FCS) onboard where the data obtained from aircraft and submarines.

Tactical weapons system

From Encylopaedia Britannica

Tactical weapons system, system integrating tactical weapons with electronic equipment for target acquisition, aiming, or fire control or a combination of such purposes. Tactical weapons are designed for offensive or defensive use at relatively short range with relatively immediate consequences. They include weapons used for antitank assault, antiaircraft defense, battlefield support, aerial combat, or naval combat.

Encyclopaedia Britannica


Missile fire control systems

From the extract below, we can see that fire control systems can be used for missiles, and that some systems involve a computer controlling the firing to “overcome the delay of the pilot”

Quoted from Fire control system – Wikipedia

Modern fire control systems

Modern fire-control computers, like all high-performance computers, are digital. The added performance allows basically any input to be added, from air density and wind, to wear on the barrels and distortion due to heating. These sorts of effects are noticeable for any sort of gun, and fire-control computers have started appearing on smaller and smaller platforms. Tanks were one early use that automated gun laying using a laser rangefinder and a barrel-distortion meter. Fire-control computers are not just useful for large cannons. They can be used to aim machine guns, small cannons, guided missiles, rifles, grenades, rockets—any kind of weapon that can have its launch or firing parameters varied. They are typically installed on ships, submarines, aircraft, tanks and even on some small arms—for example, the grenade launcher developed for use on the Fabrique Nationale F2000 bullpup assault rifle. Fire-control computers have gone through all the stages of technology that computers have, with some designs based upon analogue technology and later vacuum tubes which were later replaced with transistors.

Fire-control systems are often interfaced with sensors (such as sonar, radar, infra-red search and track, laser range-finders, anemometers, wind vanes, thermometers, barometers, etc.) in order to cut down or eliminate the amount of information that must be manually entered in order to calculate an effective solution. Sonar, radar, IRST and range-finders can give the system the direction to and/or distance of the target. Alternatively, an optical sight can be provided that an operator can simply point at the target, which is easier than having someone input the range using other methods and gives the target less warning that it is being tracked. Typically, weapons fired over long ranges need environmental information—the farther a munition travels, the more the wind, temperature, air density, etc. will affect its trajectory, so having accurate information is essential for a good solution. Sometimes, for very long-range rockets, environmental data has to be obtained at high altitudes or in between the launching point and the target. Often, satellites or balloons are used to gather this information.

Once the firing solution is calculated, many modern fire-control systems are also able to aim and fire the weapon(s). Once again, this is in the interest of speed and accuracy, and in the case of a vehicle like an aircraft or tank, in order to allow the pilot/gunner/etc. to perform other actions simultaneously, such as tracking the target or flying the aircraft. Even if the system is unable to aim the weapon itself, for example the fixed cannon on an aircraft, it is able to give the operator cues on how to aim. Typically, the cannon points straight ahead and the pilot must maneuver the aircraft so that it oriented correctly before firing. In most aircraft the aiming cue takes the form of a “pipper” which is projected on the heads-up display (HUD). The pipper shows the pilot where the target must be relative to the aircraft in order to hit it. Once the pilot maneuvers the aircraft so that the target and pipper are superimposed, he or she fires the weapon, or on some aircraft the weapon will fire automatically at this point, in order to overcome the delay of the pilot. In the case of a missile launch, the fire-control computer may give the pilot feedback about whether the target is in range of the missile and how likely the missile is to hit if launched at any particular moment. The pilot will then wait until the probability reading is satisfactorily high before launching the weapon.

Wikipedia


Missile rails

lockheed-f35-lightning-weapon-bays-sml.jpg

F-35C

URL: www.migflug.com

aim-120-990331-f-2171a-016-2-sml

LAU-128 Missile Rail Launcher on a US Air Force F-15

https://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/equip/lau-127.htm

aat-sml.jpg

Rail-launched AIM-7 from an F-15

URL: http://www.f-16.net/forum/viewtopic.php?f=38&t=28429

VIDEO: J-20 stealth fighter with Chinese indigenious missile launch rail-abridged Dailymotion


Quote from Duotech:

5 Data Inputs from Aircraft to the Central Air Data Computer (CADC)

The Fire Control Computer (FCC) helps with navigation and aircraft management, but the primary purpose is to manage targeting in both air-to-air and air-to-ground attack modes. The FCC is modularly designed in three primary functional groups: the central processing unit (CPU), the magnetic memory (MM), and the input/output (I/O).

fire-control-computer-fcc-7560500-041-sml.jpg

Simply put, the magnetic memory is like a chalkboard, where the input/output writes the numbers it receives from various avionics systems and the radar system of the aircraft. The I/O communicates with the CPU, which then calculates a result using the numbers in MM. The CPU then tells the output the result, passing the information over a data bus to the proper receiving unit to be utilized by the aircraft and pilot.

The FCC implements the computations for nine major functions:

9 Major Functions of the Fire Control Computer (FCC)

  1. Executive scheduling, initialization, and mode control – The FCC determines which electronics system can deliver, or receive, what information to or from the FCC’s data bus at what time.
  2. Data entry and display – Calculates the information input from the aircraft’s various avionics and the radar system and outputs the data to the proper displays.
  3. Navigation support such as system altitude and steering – provides data to cockpit displays in order for pilot to follow optimum flight paths for intercept.
  4. Fixtaking – The FCC calculates the input terrestrial, electronic, or astronomical data acquired from the aircraft’s avionics and global positioning system to continuously determine where in the sky the jet is positioned.
  5. Air-to-ground and air-to-air weapon delivery including lead computing optical sight (LCOS), snap-shoot, and missile modes – assist pilot with accurate firing of guns and missiles by calculating their aircraft’s position (fixtaking) versus the enemy combatant’s position, and properly leading the pilot with head-up display to radar intercept
  6. Energy management – While dog fighting, energy advantage is everything. As two pilots engage, they trade airspeed for altitude back and forth, trying to gain the advantage over the other. The good pilot is constantly aware of their own energy while observing his opponent to assess their energy situation. With this information, the pilot can decide who has the energy advantage and maneuver to gain the upper hand.
  7. Stores select – Tells the pilot which weapons he has available to him. Allows them to select the missile or bomb they wish to employ against the enemy.
  8. Self-test monitoring and reporting – FCC monitors itself and notifies pilot if system is not functioning properly.
  9. Head-up display (HUD) display parameters – delivering accurate data that the FCC outputs to be displayed on the HUD for pilot’s immediate use

Technical Description: The FCC communicates with other avionics systems via a dual redundant multiplexed data bus. Whenever the FCC is off or incapable of performing the bus control function, a discrete is furnished to the inertial navigation set such that the bus control function is transferred to the inertial navigation set computer.

Layman Description: This means that there are two data buses. The FCC talks to other avionics systems over those buses. If the FCC fails, it turns off the switch that says it is in charge (a discrete signal, off the bus), and the navigation computer takes over. That way, the other avionics can keep working.

DuoTechServices


Quoted from Debug Lies News

Israel : Autonomous USV System That Fires Torpedoes

Elbit Systems completed recently a trial test torpedo launch from its Seagull multi-mission, autonomous Unmanned Surface Vessel (USV) system.

Performed out of Israel’s Haifa port, the trial demonstrated the capability of Seagull to install and launch lightweight torpedoes, adding to the platform’s sensory capabilities.

The Seagull is designed to carry out unmanned maritime missions, such as anti-submarine warfare (ASW) counter-mine operation, protecting high-value assets inshore and offshore. Lightweight torpedoes are often used by anti-submarine vessels, helicopters, and aircraft against submarines located in shallow waters.

This is the first instance where such weapons are used from unmanned platforms.

“The success of this test demonstrates Seagull’s modular mission system capability, enabling a highly effective ASW configuration of high-performance dipping sonar using two single tube torpedoes,” said Ofer Ben-Dov, Vice President Naval Systems Business Line atElbit Systems’ ISTAR Division …

The Seagull USV is controlled by means of a line-of-sight communication link that is effective to a range of about 100 kilometers or through a satellite communication link effective at longer distances.

http://debuglies.com/index.php/2016/06/29/israel-autonomous-usv-system-that-fires-torpedoes/


Homing – Infrared image, coordinates, radar measurements of the target

Active radar homing

naval-aircraft-missiles-web-52-728-sml

URL: http://www.slideshare.net/bknjrotc/naval-aircraft-missiles-web

Semiactive homing

naval-aircraft-missiles-web-53-728-sml.jpg

URL: http://www.slideshare.net/bknjrotc/naval-aircraft-missiles-web

Homing guidance

naval-aircraft-missiles-web-51-728-sml.jpg

URL: http://www.slideshare.net/bknjrotc/naval-aircraft-missiles-web


Mode of exit of missile

If the missile was within the fuselage of the plane, it was loaded into the cargo hold and probably shot out through the nose cone.

Cargo_Door-1.jpg

Cargo door of a passenger plane open.

070307plane2.jpg

The nose cone of this cargo plane is lifted up

Doctoring of videos of Flight 175 hitting South Tower

VIDEO: 911 plane hitting tower slow motion Dailymotion

In a number of videos, a white flash ball with an orange tinge can be seen as Flight 175 approaches the South Tower. In the video above, the head of the plane seems to have been scrubbed out; however, there is still a flash that can be seen just as the plane hits the tower.

VIDEO: Airplane and a flash on impact 911 Dailymotion

This video shows the orange-tinged white flash very distinctly. The head of the plane seems to have been pixelated out. There are bright spots of reflection on the plane’s fuselage in two places that did not appear before right up until the plane was within the close vicinity of the building. Instead of these bright reflections, the plane should have been dark as the building would have cast a shadow on the plane. A missile’s bright flash can be the only explanation.

Spotter helicopter drone or aimed laser

Also, right as the plane approaches the South Tower, a white light seems to be flitting nearby. It looks like a helicopter that is nearby. Perhaps it’s guiding the plane’s flight or the missile from the plane. It could be a drone-helicopter. Another explanation for this object is that it is a spotter unmanned aircraft that is controlling the firing of the missile from the plane. As the plane approaches the building, the drone is in a good position for relaying information via SATLINK to operators on the ground who will time the firing of the missile appropriately.

VIDEO: The 2nd World Trade Center Attack – flittering object Dailymotion

In the video below, there is a distinct object shooting out of the opposite side of the South Tower from where the plane hit. It looks like a missile remnant. A missile trail can also be observed in many videos of Flight 175 hitting the South Tower.

VIDEO: The 2nd World Trade Center Attack – missile trail and remnant Dailymotion

missile trail.jpg

A screen capture from the video shows a trail of smoke shooting out the other side of the tower from the plane strike.

In many of the other videos taken of Flight 175 hitting the South Tower, the video looks doctored in a similar way. The head of the plane seems to be missing or abnormally foreshortened. The pixels look fuzzy around the head of the plane just before it hits the South Tower. It’s possible that Israeli Mossad agents were ready to film the plane attack of the South Tower at different angles and they doctored the videos before releasing the videos to the broadcasting stations. These doctored videos would be the main documentary evidence of a plane hitting the South Tower, and they would be scrubbed of any evidence of a missile hitting the tower.

If the doctored video was taken by a cameraman from a broadcasting company, it would mean that the owner of the news network company was complicit in the false flag attack.

______________________________________________________________

Cargo hold doors

belly-door.jpg

767 cargo hold door IMG: http://aerosavvy.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/belly-door.jpg URL: http://aerosavvy.com/airlines-freight-vs-passengers/

boeing-767-006-preview

US Airways 767-200ER N653US at Schiphol on Oct 9th 2003. Photo (CC) caribb. IMG: http://www.aviationspectator.com/files/images/Boeing-767-006.preview.jpg URL: http://www.aviationspectator.com/image/latest-aviation-images?page=8

Cargo door is open on the right side of the plane near the rear. Flight 11 was a Boeing 767-200ER.

boeing-767-001-preview-sml.jpg

Boeing 767-200. Photo (CC) Todo-Juanjo. IMG: http://www.aviationspectator.com/files/images/Boeing-767-001.preview.jpg  URL: http://www.aviationspectator.com/image/latest-aviation-images?page=8

The outline of the door of the nose cone compartment that houses the avionics is visible in this picture.

avb767_02-sml.jpg

Boeing 767-200 IMG: http://www.airvectors.net/avb767_02.jpg URL: http://www.airvectors.net/avb767.html

This image shows the landing gear out and the doors of the landing compartment open.

_________________________________________________________________

Cargo hold description

Quoted from Quora:

  • What we call the “hold” or the “bulk” is actually on the Airbus 330 and 340 the aft cargo section.  There’s a separate smaller access door to it from the outside.  It’s not a separate space inside the airplane as there’s only a net that keeps this zone isolated from the zone just in front of it.  It distinguishes itself from the rest of the cargo area in that there are no special cargo containers needed to load the items in first.  Please notice that I’m only talking about a passenger A330/340/320 now as I have too little experience with other types.  I have a little 737-200 experience and there were no cargo containers needed at all, cargo could just be piled up inside the plane.

main-qimg-3c8788b5337dd6706c0fcec4b6c70d00-c.jpeg

(Note the small “bulk cargo compartment door” aft of the aft cargo compartment door.  This allows separate access to the “bulk” or “hold” for items like baby strollers or animals that aren’t conveniently loaded in cargo containers before being put on board.)

main-qimg-d1c0e7f932d0bd73912ad00bfc401223-c.jpeg

(The bulk cargo compartment forms one big space together with the aft cargo compartment so in theory whatever the temperature in the aft cargo compartment is, is also the temperature in the bulk cargo compartment)

main-qimg-a80039197c90310e5a394dfa4aea9856-c-smaller.jpg

(Here’s a view from inside the aft cargo compartment towards the back of the airplane.  The open door is the aft cargo door.  Note how only a net separates the “bulk” or the “hold” from this aft cargo compartment.)

main-qimg-cca9c961f88167051830cd8e08bdc373-c.jpeg

(Other items, like checked in luggage or cargo, go into a cargo container like depicted here before being loaded onto the airplane.  This prevents items from shifting significantly and keeps the airplane stable and balanced.  Items that go into the bulk are not loaded in one of those containers but just kept in place with a net.)

https://www.quora.com/Whats-the-temperature-in-an-airliners-cargo-hold

Even though the pictures are from an Airbus, a Boeing cargo hold would be similar.

________________________________________________________________

Cargo doors

cargo_door_mdf

Cargo door of a Boeing 757-200 URL: http://craigmiddleton.co.uk/757/Biggles/www.crjresets.ca/z-Mcon/Hard2Find/B757/757_rr/airplane_general/doors_and_windows.html

main-qimg-091741bbeab1a6154a446959ed4750ac-c (1).jpeg

URL: https://www.quora.com/Is-the-cargo-hold-of-most-airliners-accessible-from-the-main-cabin

Quote: (To give you an idea of what it looks like down there: cargo is usually loaded in these containers and even if you open the doors of the LDMCR or avionics bay, you’ll just stand face to face with the first container.  No access to your suitcase where you accidentally put your recharge cable for your phone in, I’m sorry to inform you.)  https://www.quora.com/Is-the-cargo-hold-of-most-airliners-accessible-from-the-main-cabin


Cargo hold

777-forward-cargo-mdf.jpg

777 forward cargo URL: http://snocamp.s3.amazonaws.com/steve.cotterill@sno.wednet.edu/uploads/files/fam_002.pdf

1agfx-sml

Inside of an airliner cargo pit

IMG: https://www.reddit.com/r/aviation/comments/pltkd/the_inside_of_an_airliner_cargo_pit_in_case/

B777LLAR-sml.jpg

http://www.keywordsking.com/bDEwMTEgY2FiaW4/

In some planes, the cargo hold can be accessed from the main cabin.

__________________________________________________________

767 Boeing family

Quote from Boeing:

767 The Boeing 767 family includes three passenger models — the 767-200ER, 767-300ER and 767-400ER — and a freighter, which is based on the 767- 200ER fuselage. The 767 has been converted into a Tanker for military purposes. Passengers are never more than one seat from the aisle.

boeing767-awacs.jpg

http://snocamp.s3.amazonaws.com/steve.cotterill@sno.wednet.edu/uploads/files/fam_002.pdf


AWACS

From Boeing E-767 – Wikipedia

  • Boeing E-767 is an Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft.
  • This plane is essentially Boeing E-3 Sentry’s surveillance radar and air control system installed on a Boeing 767-200
  • E-3 Sentry was the prime aircraft for airborne warning and control system aircraft
  • Base airframe of Boeing E-767 is 767-200ER
  • Has 3-D radar
  • Other major subsystems are identification, tactical data link and navigation
  • First E-767 made first flight in 1994

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_E-767

e-767-jasdf-awacs-sml

Boeing E-767 AWACS plane URL: http://nosint.blogspot.com/2014/11/boeing-to-upgrade-cabin-and-cockpit.html


Emergency exits in a Boeing 767-200ER and Boeing 757-300

Delta_Boeing_767-200-sml.jpg     Delta_Boeing_757-sml.jpg

Seating and exits on Boeing 767-200ER on left and Boeing 757-300 on right URL: http://www.aviationexplorer.com/aircraft_airline_seating_charts.html

The hijackers could have exited the plane from any of these emergency exits.

Dimensions of a 75