A Physicist Explains: Fire Theory

 

plane_in_building_mdf2

The amount of fuel in one of the planes that hit the WTC tower (fuel is shown in blue)

Summary

The Twin Towers was a psychological sleight of hand. People were shown images and televised feeds of explosions of a huge ball of fire when the planes hit the towers. This was immediately followed by images of the towers falling and crumbling into a heap. And so it was easy to assume that somehow the big ball of flame somehow caused the towers to explode into fire, become unstable and fall into a heap.

But the truth is that the real sequence of events was different to the one portrayed on TV and shown over and over again. If you follow the full sequence of events from the plane strike to the end, you will see that the official story does not make sense at all.

After the initial fire burst, fires quickly settled to burning in only several floors. Flames were not enough to shoot out from the building. Fires seemed to burn steadily inside but were not the same size as the flame burst that was seen when the planes struck the building.

They were essentially small fires that were limited to only a few floors of the towers, and did not spread from there to the rest of the 110-story towers.

While the crime was being carried, attempts were made to detonate explosives to cause more fires or worsening of the fires already present, but they did not create huge fires that spread throughout the building. At the maximum fires were present on just a few floors of the building, near the top fifth of the building.

The lower four-fifths of the towers seemed to be unaffected by the fire. Gutting was minimal. No large slabs of concrete fell from the storeys, apart from when the buildings were struck.

When the sequence of the fires are examined in this way, which they are in the Demolition 4 section of this website, it can be clearly seen that it would have been impossible for the fires to have collapsed the buildings. Fires would have had to travel through most of the floors of the 110-story building to cause it to collapse, and even then that would not guarantee the towers would fall.

The September 11 attacks of the planes striking the towers and apparently causing them to fall through the fires they had created, was a visual illusion.

“Cause” and “result” were shown repeatedly on TV broadcasts. They had the effect of making many people associate the plane strike with the tower collapses.

This is what we were meant to think:

cause_trick2.jpg

Misdirection, the same ploy that is used in many magical illusions

The shock of seeing a huge fireball that seemed to explode the top of the towers left an indelible impression on one’s mind, and that was the purpose of the perpetrators. As one’s brain was trying to process the distressing images, it would be easier to introduce another meme into people’s minds: that of the plane falling due to the shock and blast of the plane strike and the enormous “fire storm” that followed.

However, there was no fire storm after the initial ball of fire, that burned itself out quite quickly–only mundane office fires on a few floors that after some time were on the way to burning themselves out. With time, the fires actually grew less. Therefore, the story that the planes caused the towers to fall–from the shock, explosions when the planes hit, the fires that resulted–cannot be true.

What really happened:

Magicians often use visual tricks of this nature. It is called misdirection. 

The real sequence of events was a fireball from when a missile struck the building, followed by small fires developing on only a few floors, in the top fifth of the building, and then the fires gradually grew smaller, followed by a small increase when bombs were detonated in the floors where the planes hit. After this, when fires were confined to just several floors, with the rest of the tower intact, and not buckling or bowing, and with hardly any masonry falling from the towers, the towers suddenly collapsed.

Even a superficial examination of pictures that show the progress of the fires will leave no doubt that the official story is not possible. For example, in the South Tower, fire was just present on several floors.

This picture show the South Tower seconds before it collapsed. How could it be possible that the towers suddenly looked like the picture on the right a moment later. Fire does not spread through a 110 story building so quickly.

fire-extent-nrth-1028am-2

Simple pictures like the one above will provide all the information one needs to understand that the towers did not collapse by fire.

In this section, a popular theory explaining the collapse of the towers, the thermite theory, is discussed and debunked. Link

6 pounds of thermite could not smash a single brick in a thermite experiment (video); however, it was supposed to have destroyed more than 500,000 metric tons of concrete that were in each of the towers, according to the people who promote the thermite theory

Problems with the fire theory

Shortly before the fall of the towers, people were observed alive near the plane crash levels. This proves that the temperature was not as high as they claim it was. If it had been, these people would have been burned to death by the time the picture was taken. One person was even identified standing near the hole made by the plane. Her name was Edna Cintron. Human tissue cannot withstand heat better than metal. It does not make sense for people to be alive 2-30 minutes before the tower collapsed from fire, as the authorities claim. This is one of the many holes in the fire theory for the fall of the towers.

Many people alive shortly before the collapses

The time that the picture was taken isn’t known but there is no evidence that the temperature of the fire was high. There is also little sign of fire in the photo, apart from some smoke. The towers fell within 120 minutes of being hit. The South Tower fell after 56 minutes. And the North Tower fell after 102 minutes. This is insufficient time for the spread of fire and destruction of these 110-story towers by fires. A few minutes before the South Tower fell, a firefighter was heard saying that he could put out the fire with two lines. Perhaps someone was listening in to the firefighters’ communications, and realized that if the fires were put out, a fall of the building would make less sense. So this could be why the South Tower fell when it did.  

Many people are still alive in this picture.  v911t

“Concrete doesn’t burn”

concretecentre.com

This shows fire in Interstate Building. Fire was present on several floors like the Twin Towers. However, it did not result in the same severe level of destruction that the Twin Towers underwent. The building did not collapse. Only the floors where the fires were visible were damaged.   wtc7.net

Gutting

In a typical fire, there is gutting of a building. Flames shoot out of the building indicating fire is consuming the building–the structure and the contents. Parts of the facade fall off as they carbonize. However, the basic structure is usually left intact–in this building, the skeleton is made of steel. In this building there is about 12 floors that have been affected by fire.

Carbonization occurs in a fire. In the Twin Towers, there was little evidence of gutting before the towers fell, and there were few signs of carbonization. The degree of carbonization indicates the extent of the fire. Apart from the edges of the hole that showed some blackening, there was not much evidence of carbonization. In addition, the amount of flames seen in the building decreased with time. About the time the towers fell, there were fires on about 2-4 floors of the towers.

The carbonization is shown by the black color. Fire seems to have affected at least 12 floors in this picture. After the fire has burned itself out, it leaves charred areas. Parts of the facade have fallen off, leaving the basic framework intact, the rebars and the floor levels. This is the process of gutting. This process seemed to have been bypassed in the Twin Towers’ collapses. 

In a typical fire, there is gutting of a building.  nfpa.org/categoryList

Smoke is black = oxygen-starved fire

When the smoke is black, it means that the fire is being starved of oxygen. A fire needs oxygen for it to burn. There is a large quantity of black smoke in the pictures. However, most of it is black. The fires are on their way to burning out.

drjudywood.com

Small fires at the WTC

In the picture below, most of the tower on the left is unaffected by fire. The facade is mostly intact except for the plane strike and exit parts.

North Tower on right and South Tower on the left americanhistory

Windsor Tower

Windsor Tower was an office tower that caught fire in 2005. It had 32 floors of which 3 were below the ground level. It caught fire about the 21st floor. It burned for 24 hours before the fire was extinguished. Fire consumed most of the building. A lot of the masonry fell off or was destroyed by flames. You can see the process of gutting and carbonization in this picture.

Windsor Tower was an office tower that caught fire in 2005.  utopiax.org

Below, the storeys are still intact. There is little evidence of pancake collapsing in this section of the building. The steel structure remains erect. Rebars can be seen in the roof showing how the fires gutted the building. Some of the concrete pillars and masonry are still in place. Compare this to the level of the destruction seen in the Twin Towers’ collapses. The amount of fire and level of damage do not match. Windsor Towers had much more severe fire, and this fire affected nearly every floor of the 32-floor structure. However, the tower shows mainly gutting and the basic structure is still mostly preserved. Contrast this to the Twin Towers, which had fire on only several floors for most of the time they were on fire, but they both collapsed suddenly and disintegrated.

The storeys are still intact in Madrid 32-story Windsor Tower utopiax.org

Interstate building. This office tower shows a much more severe fire than the Twin Towers. Flames are shooting out. However, this building did not fall nor disintegrate. utopiax.org

Flameless “fires”

Where was the fire that was supposed to have been so massive that it globally weakened the structure of the towers from the bottom story to the ninetieth storey?

Looking at the picture below, which shows the real state of affairs some minutes before the South Tower fell (on the left), it is clear that these are tow very different scenarios.

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The South Tower about 10 minutes before it fell on the left; Windsor Tower on the right. 

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Gutted Windsor Tower. There is much evidence of carbonization. However, the skeleton is still intact. 

Even NIST estimates the initial fires in the towers burned out in a few minutes; their reports say that most office material fires burn out by 20 minutes.

And WTC 7 that was completely destroyed in the attack, collapsing straight down onto its footprint into a heap of rubble and dust wasn’t even hit by a plane – how does the jet fuel theory apply to WTC 7?

Fires that occurred in that tower only affected a few floors. In pictures (not the doctored ones shown on debunking sites that have smoke clouds with a dead straight vertical edge {SEE LINK TO JPG}), you can flames lighting up the windows of only two floors. Even the doctored photos don’t show the presence of extensive fire – compare to the Madrid skyscraper which was a mass of flame – and which still stood after the fire had burned out – its frame still intact. This is what we expect to see after a building fire that has raged uncontrollably – a blackened structure with most of its contents reduced to charcoal – a fire guts. Then this charcoal may disintegrate. But it has to be carbonized first before it goes to the stage of powderizing into dust.

Somehow the WTC 7 and WTC 1 and 2 bypassed this process completely and went from being hit by planes (or not even being hit by anything in the case of WTC 7) to a dry fine powdered state. Even the bigger-sized debris shows no evidence of being carbonized.

Fire weakens by CARBONIZING. If it hasn’t been carbonized, it wasn’t turned into powder by fire.

Explosives are the only things that powderize without carbonizing first.

If fire had spread throughout the seven towers (WTC 3,4,5 and 6 were also extensively destroyed in the 9/11 attack) affecting every part of the structures, every floor in the case of WTC 1,2 and 7, spreading to almost every joint, infiltrating almost every beam, slab, wall, window and piece of furniture sitting inside them, causing them to ‘weaken’ to the point that they dissolved into dust, then there was very little sign of it. When did fires start to occur without producing flame? It would be the first time in the history of the world.


This is the Windsor Tower. Many floors are alight with flames. Flames are shooting out and masonry is falling down.  911truth

Windsor Tower, Madrid. 2005 About ten floors are on fire. Fires are licking out, and much of the masonry on this side visible has fallen off. 911truth

WTC towers. The smoke is black. Hardly any flame is visible. The bottom two-thirds of the towers are mostly intact. drjudywood

A helicopter is seen in the top left hand of the picture. Was it an unmanned helicopter? It’s highly likely this helicopter was involved in the operations that day. Helicopters could have been used to monitor the situation and detonate bombs.

This picture shows the extent of the fire in the South Tower. 

Helicopter seen in this picture. In Rick Siegel’s 911 Eyewitness, it is speculated that drone helicopters were used to detonate bombs in the towers. The helicopters appeared near the building just before small explosions and collapses occurred.

Helicopter seen in this picture. The extent of fire in the South Tower is seen. Below this fire, the building does not show signs of bucking or other damage. 

Helicopter is flying above the tower 

The South Tower showing plumes of debris and dust as it collapses. There is hardly any carbonization seen and no evidence of fire at this stage. The North Tower on the left. drjudywood

People are visible clinging onto the pillars. Fire is seen on the left. If the fires were strong enough to melt and destroy and weaken the steel core and other steel parts of the exoskeleton of the tower, the people would not be able to move as shown in this picture. They would have suffered too much burns to be standing.

North Tower.  worcester

One Meridian Plaza fire

911oz.com

One Meridian Plaza and fire ground operation in the early morning hours of February 24, 1991. Fire involves the 22nd, 23rd, 24th and part of the 25th floors. Note the heavy stream of water sprayed on the exterior from an adjacent building. The extent of the fire is small like in the Twin Towers and WTC 7. However, the results are very different.

Exterior view of One Meridian Plaza  911oz.co

Tehran apartment building catches fire after hit by a plane

Plane crashes into apartment building but doesn’t collapse and crumble

This 10-story apartment block in Tehran, Iran was hit by a C-130 plane, a military jet. At least 115 people died. However, the apartment building did not fall, despite the fact that many floors were charred by the fire. It’s hard to believe that this 10 story apartment block was sturdier than the Twin Towers.

“Before firefighters extinguished the blaze, flames roared from the roof and windows in several of the upper floors.” Pic: drjudywood.com

Image:  Apartment building in Iran. The apartment building is supported by pillars. answers.com

Tehran apartment building. Some carbonization of several floors but the tower is still erect. english.peopledaily.com

The same Tehran apartment block iranfocus.com

Another view of the 10-story Tehran apartment peopledaily.com.cn

10-storey apartment building on fire after a military jet C-130 struck it. More than 115 people died. Remains of the plane can be seen on the ground below. iranfocus.com

Tehran apartment building that had been hit by a plane. A fire broke out after the strike. aussie_news_views

El Al plane crash in the Netherlands

airdisaster.com

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airdisaster.com

gearthhacks.com/dlfile15827/Bijlmer-Disaster / gearthhacks.com/dlfile15827/Bijlmer-Disaster

Plane crash on York and 72nd

flickr.com

flickr.com

blogs.usatoday.com

Other high-rise fires

Building Date Fire Duration (hours)
World Trade Center North Tower February 23, 1975 3 to 4
World Trade Center North Tower September 11, 2001 1¾ *
World Trade Center South Tower September 11, 2001 1 *
World Trade Center Seven September 11, 2001 **
1st Interstate Bank Building May 4-5, 1988 3.5
Broadgate Phase 8 June 23rd, 1990 4.5
1 New York Plaza Fire August 5, 1970 6
One Meridian Plaza February 23-24, 1991 19 (11 uncontrolled)

worcester.indymedia.org

People standing in the hole

worcester.indymedia.org

Edna Cintron alive and well shortly before the collapse of tower

Edna Cintron worcester.indymedia.org

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worcester.indymedia.org

The 1975 World Trade Center Fire

Comment: And we have the example of a fire in the World Trade Center itself to show that skyscraper buildings don’t explode into dust and fling out beams from an office fire.

This 110-story steel-framed office building suffered a fire on the 11th floor on February 23, 1975. The loss was estimated at over $2,000,000. The building is one of a pair of towers, 412 m in height. The fire started at approximately 11:45 P.M. in a furnished office on the 11th floor and spread through the corridors toward the main open office area. A porter saw flames under the door and sounded the alarm. It was later that the smoke detector in the air-conditioning plenum on the 11th floor was activated. The delay was probably because the air-conditioning system was turned off at night. The building engineers placed the ventilation system in the purge mode, to blow fresh air into the core area and to draw air from all the offices on the 11th floor so as to prevent further smoke spread. The fire department on arrival found a very intense fire. It was not immediately known that the fire was spreading vertically from floor to floor through openings in the floor slab. These 300-mm x 450-mm (12-in. x 18-in.) openings in the slab provided access for telephone cables. Subsidiary fires on the 9th to the 19th floors were discovered and readily extinguished. The only occupants of the building at the time of fire were cleaning and service personnel. They were evacuated without any fatalities. However, there were 125 firemen involved in fighting this fire and 28 sustained injuries from the intense heat and smoke. The cause of the fire is unknown.

911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2

Houses on fire

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babybluecafe.blogspot.com

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Bush House (Penn Belle) Hotel  after the fire bellefontearts.org/Virtual_walk/Bush_House

Bush House (Penn Belle) Hotel before the fire bellefontearts.org/Virtual_walk/Bush_House

racereports.net

leesburgfire.org

organizingla.com/organizingla_blog

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treehugger.com

Wood stronger than steel? – Houses still standing after fire

belgrafix.com

flickr.com

Even this shack is still standing after a fire – B52 pop group’s “Love Shack” (Link)

“Love shack” from B52 song http://www.501blog.com/?p=66

After the fire angwinreporter.com

Before the fire angwinreporter.com

domebuilder.com

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Image URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:State_college_pa_burned_house.jpg

nometh.org

dce.harvard.edu

acepryhill.com

firewisemanagement.com

Truss failure from fire? – The Broadgate Fire

The above photo shows a number of trusses and a buckled steel column after the Broadgate Phase 8 fire.

Consider the following quote from here (section 1.1) concerning the fire.

“On the 23rd June 1990 a fire developed in the partly completed fourteen storey building in the Broadgate development. The fire began in a large contractors hut on the first floor and smoke spread undetected throughout the building. The fire detection and sprinkler system were not yet operational out of working hours.

The fire lasted 4.5 hours including 2 hours where the fire exceeded 1000°C (1832°F). The direct fire loss was in excess of £25 million however, only a fraction of the cost (£2 million) represented structural frame and floor damage. The major damage was to the building fabric as a result of smoke. Moreover, the structural repairs after the fire took only 30 days. The structure of the building was a steel frame with composite steel deck concrete floors and was only partially (fire) protected at this stage of construction. During and after the fire, despite large deflections in the elements exposed to fire, the structure behaved well and there was no collapse of any of the columns, beams or floors.

The Broadgate phase 8 fire was the first opportunity to examine the influence of fire on the structural behaviour of a modern fast track steel framed building with composite construction.”

For more on this fire see this report.

http://guardian.150m.com/wtc/small/trusses.htm

The February 1975 World Trade Center North Tower Fire

This 110-story steel-framed office building suffered a fire on the 11th floor on February 23, 1975. The loss was estimated at over $2,000,000. The building is one of a pair of towers, 412 m in height. The fire started at approximately 11:45 P.M. in a furnished office on the 11th floor and spread through the corridors toward the main open office area. A porter saw flames under the door and sounded the alarm. It was later that the smoke detector in the air-conditioning plenum on the 11th floor was activated. The delay was probably because the air-conditioning system was turned off at night. The building engineers placed the ventilation system in the purge mode, to blow fresh air into the core area and to draw air from all the offices on the 11th floor so as to prevent further smoke spread. The fire department on arrival found a very intense fire. It was not immediately known that the fire was spreading vertically from floor to floor through openings in the floor slab. These 300-mm x 450-mm (12-in. x 18-in.) openings in the slab provided access for telephone cables. Subsidiary fires on the 9th to the 19th floors were discovered and readily extinguished. The only occupants of the building at the time of fire were cleaning and service personnel. They were evacuated without any fatalities. However, there were 125 firemen involved in fighting this fire and 28 sustained injuries from the intense heat and smoke. The cause of the fire is unknown.

guardian.150m.com/wtc/small/trusses.htm

Fire extinguished in China’s tallest building

SHANGHAI, Aug 14 (Reuters) – Firemen extinguished a blaze on high floors of China’s tallest building in the Shanghai financial district on Tuesday, authorities said. There were no casualties.

The fire at the 101-storey Shanghai World Financial Centre, which is under construction and close to completion, was apparently caused by a welding torch which ignited workplace materials, a city government spokeswoman said.

Thick smoke billowed from several floors of the skyscraper about 40 storeys above the ground, witnesses said.

The blaze was put out a little more than an hour after it was reported, the city spokeswoman said.

reuters.com

infowars.com

ninecommentaries.com

ninecommentaries.com

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Photo above: Image from the video below. China’s tallest building on fire

VIDEO: China’s tallest building on fire! Dailymotion

Official Story: Steel beams are less resistant to fire than the human body

We are supposed to believe the fire was so hot that it did this to steel beams:

bent-world-trade-beam-sml.jpg

But didn’t touch these people:

worcester.indymedia.org

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freedomisforeverybody.org

whatreallyhappened.com

Video of woman

VIDEO: Woman waving from the WTC  Dailymotion

Windsor Tower fire (Madrid)

iklimnet.com

Overview of Fire in Windsor Tower in Madrid, Spain

Location: Madrid, Spain
Fire Event: 12 February 2005
Fire started at the 21st floor, spreading to all floors above the 2nd floor. Fire duration: 18 – 20 hours
Fire Damage: Extensive slab collapse above the 17th floor. The building was totally destroyed by the fire.
Construction Type: Reinforced concrete core with waffle slabs supported by internal RC columns and steel beams, with perimeter steel columns which were unprotected above the 17th floor level at the time of the fire.
Fire Resistance: Passive fire protection. No sprinklers.
Building Type: 106 m (32 storeys). Commercial.

mace.manchester.ac.uk

Timeline of fire development

Estimated time frame of fire development (NILIM 2005)
23:00 Fire started at the 21st Floor
23:05 ~ 23:20 After receiving a fire signal, the security guards went to the 21st floor and attempting to fight the fire before giving up
23:21 Fire brigade was called
23:25 Fire brigade arrived
23:30 Fire brigade started to fight the fire (news report)
00:00 All floors above the 21st floor were in fire
(news report)
00:30 Fire brigade retreated and adopted a defensive position,
preventing fire spread to adjacent buildings
02:00 Fire spread below the 17th floor
02:15 Chunks of facade started falling off (news report)
03:30 Fire spread below 16th floor, crossing over
the upper technical floor
04:00 Floors at upper level collapsed (news report)
05:30 Fire spread below the 12th floor (news report)
08:30 Fire spread below the 4th floor
13:30 Fire was under controlled
17:00 Fire brigade declared the put out of the fire (news report)

mace.manchester.ac.uk

The Building

The Windsor Tower or Torre Windsor (officially known as Edificio Windsor) was a 32-storey concrete building with a reinforced concrete central core. A typical floor was two-way spanning 280mm deep waffle slab supported by the concrete core, internal RC columns with additional 360mm deep steel I-beams and steel perimeter columns. Originally, the perimeter columns and internal steel beams were left unprotected in accordance with the Spanish building code at the time of construction

The building featured two heavily reinforced concrete transfer structures (technical floors) between the 2nd and 3rd Floors, and between the 16th and 17th Floors respectively. The original cladding system was fixed to the steel perimeter columns and the floor slabs. The perimeter columns were supported by the transfer structures at the 17th and 3rd Floor levels.

The building was subjected to a three year refurbishment programme of works when the fire broke out. The major works included the installations of:
– Fire protection to the perimeter steel columns using a boarding system
– Fire protection to the internal steel beams using a spray protection
– A sprinkler system
– A new aluminium cladding system

The refurbishment was carried out floor-by-floor from the lower floors upwards. By the time the fire broke out, the fire protection for all steelwork below the 17th floor had been completed except a proportion of the 9th and 15th floors. However, not all the gaps between the cladding and the floor slabs had been sealed with fireproof material (Dave 2005). Also fire stopping to voids and fire doors to vertical shafts were not fully installed.

mace.manchester.ac.uk

Fire Protection System

The Windsor Tower’s original structural design complied with the Spanish building codes in 1970s. At the time of the construction, the Spanish codes did not require fire protection to steelwork and sprinkler fire protection for the building.

As a result, the original existing steelwork was left unprotected and no sprinkler system was installed in the building. The gap between the original cladding and floor slabs was not firestopped as well. In fact, these weak links in the fire protection of the building was being rectified in the refurbishment project at the time of the fire.

Since the building adopted the “open plan” floor concept, effectively, the fire compartmentation could only be floor-by-floor (about 40 x 25m). However, the vertical compartmentation might not be fully achieved due to the lack of firestop system in floor openings and between the original cladding and the floor slabs.

mace.manchester.ac.uk

The Fire

The fire was believed to have been caused by a short-circuit on the 21st floor. However, some facts under investigation point that it could be induced by arsonists. The actual cause will be difficult to be found due to the collapse of the break-out floor.

It was reported that the fire started at 23:00 at the 21st Floor. Within one hour, all floors above the 21st Floor were on fire. In the following hours, the fire gradually spread downwards to the lower technical floor at the 3rd Floor. The total fire duration was estimated to be 18 ~ 20 hours.

Based on the various sources of information, Table 1 shows the estimated time frame for the fire development in the Windsor Tower.

mace.manchester.ac.uk

The Damage

The Windsor Tower was completely gutted by the fire on 12 February 2005. A large portion of the floor slabs above the 17th Floor progressively collapsed during the fire when the unprotected steel perimeter columns on the upper levels buckled and collapsed (see Figure 1). It was believed that the massive transfer structure at the 17th Floor level resisted further collapse of the building.

The whole building was beyond repair and had to be demolished. The estimated property loss was €72m before the renovation.

Based on the footages of available media filming, Table 2 summarises the estimated time frame for the structural collapses of the Windsor Tower.The cause of the blaze has not been established.

mace.manchester.ac.uk

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More pictures of Madrid Windsor Tower fire in 2005

Madrid’s Windsor Tower on fire (2005) whatreallyhappened.com

Madrid’s Windsor Tower on fire (2005) whatreallyhappened.com

Madrid’s Windsor Tower on fire (2005)  whatreallyhappened.com

Madrid’s Windsor Tower on fire (2005) whatreallyhappened.com

Madrid’s Windsor Tower on fire (2005) whatreallyhappened.com

Madrid’s Windsor Tower on fire (2005) whatreallyhappened.com

Madrid’s Windsor Tower on fire (2005) whatreallyhappened.com

Videos of Madrid Windsor Tower fire

Windsor Tower burning to music

VIDEO: Madrid skyscraper burning – set to music Dailymotion

Windsor Tower on fire

VIDEO: Madrid Tower burned out but still standing Dailymotion

VIDEO: Madrid skyscraper – burned out but standing after fire Dailymotion

burnedout_madrid-mdf.jpg

Image from the video above: burned-out 32-story Windsor Tower

VIDEO: Madrid’s Windsor Tower on fire Dailymotion

VIDEO: Madrid Windsor on fire – from WhatReallyHappened.com Dailymotion

Windsor Tower versus World Trade Center Twin Towers

VIDEO: Windsor Tower vs WTC Twin Towers Dailymotion

windsor_vs_wtc-mdf.jpg

More pictures of Windsor Tower fire

whatreallyhappened.com

Windsor Tower  iklimnet.com/hotelfires

Windsor Tower iklimnet.com

Windsor Tower iklimnet.com

Windsor Tower iklimnet.com

Windsor Tower iklimnet.com

Windsor Tower iklimnet.com/hotelfires

Taiwan Building Fire

Fire raged through the upper floors of a landmark skyscraper in the Taiwanese city of Taichung, killing four before fire crews managed to put it out.

Helicopters winched nine people from the roof of the 25-storey Golden Plaza Tower in the centre of the island’s third city as smoke swirled up.

The fire began at about 1600 (0800 GMT), apparently in a disco on the 18th floor, and spread quickly.

People streamed out into the street, covering their heads from glass shards.

Taiwanese television showed diners who had been eating in the revolving restaurant on the roof being lifted one by one to safety in helicopter rescue baskets.

The tower houses offices, shops and tutorial schools, as well as the disco, which is not thought to have been operating at the time.

At least two of the victims, said to be employees in the tower, were found on the 18th floor.

None of three people injured was seriously hurt, Reuters news agency reports.

The agency said fire crews took up to an hour and a half to extinguish the blaze.

bbc.co.uk

VIDEO: Taiwanese tower on fire Dailymotion | Original link for video: news.bbc.co.uk

taiwanese-building-on-fire.jpg

Image from video above

Taiwan tower firenews.bbc.co.uk

news.bbc.co.uk

Comparison of cores

Windsor Tower showing the core whatreallyhappened.com/wtc1_core.html

North Tower (WTC 1) showing the core whatreallyhappened.com

Boeing 707 – Boeing 767 comparison

The Boeing 707 and 767 are very similar aircraft, with the main differences being that the 767 is slightly heavier and the 707 is faster.

Since the Boeing 707 had a higher thrust to weight ratio, it would be traveling faster on take-off and on landing.

  • The thrust to weight ratio for a Boeing 707 is 4 x 18,000/336,000 = 0.214286.
  • The thrust to weight ratio for a Boeing 767 is 2 x 31,500/395,000 = 0.159494.

In all the likely variations of an accidental impact with the WTC, the Boeing 707 would be traveling faster. In terms of impact damage, this higher speed would more than compensate for the slightly lower weight of the Boeing 707.

In conclusion we can say that if the twin towers were designed to survive the impact of a Boeing 707, then they were necessarily designed to survive the impact of a Boeing 767.

whatreallyhappened.com/boeing_707_767.html

Diagram showing 3,500 gallons of fuel on a Boeing 757

Adapted from:

757.org.uk/systems/sys1.html

Comment: The diagram shows the amount of fuel that would have been in each plane before it hit the tower. The planes’ fuel tanks were not full because the planes had flown from Boston’s Logan Airport and had consumed some fuel by the time they had reached the towers. Some estimate that there were 10,000 gallons of fuel on each plane but FEMA reports that there were 3,500 gallons of fuel on each plane.

757.org.uk/systems/sys1.html

This is the amount of fuel (3,500 gallons) that remained to cause the fire in the Twin Tower according to FEMA.

Jet fuel and the WTC

“The Boeing 767 is capable of carrying up to 23,980 gallons of fuel and it is estimated that, at the time of impact, each aircraft had approximately 10,000 gallons of unused fuel on board (compiled from Government sources).”

Quote from the FEMA report into the collapse of WTC’s One and Two (Chapter Two).

Since the aircraft were only flying from Boston to Los Angeles, they would have been nowhere near fully fueled on takeoff (the aircraft have a maximum range of 7,600 miles). They would have carried just enough fuel for the trip together with some safety factor. Remember, that carrying excess fuel means higher fuel bills and less paying passengers. The aircraft would have also burnt some fuel between Boston and New York.

guardian.150m.com/wtc/how-hot.htm

“If one assumes that approximately 3,000 gallons of fuel were consumed in the initial fireballs, then the remainder either escaped the impact floors in the manners described above or was consumed by the fire on the impact floors. If half flowed away, then 3,500 gallons remained on the impact floors to be consumed in the fires that followed.”

Quote from the FEMA report into the collapse of WTC’s One and Two (Chapter Two).

FEMA says: 3,500 gallons (= 13.2 cubic meters) of fuel per tower

3500 gallons (US Liquid) = 13.2489 m³

metric-conversions.org/

13m³ = 10m³ + 3m³

Equivalent skip sizes:

13m³ skip =  10m³ skip + 3m³ skip

combined-skips-3.jpg

IMG: Images of a 10m³ skip and a 3m³ skip

Skips above shown below

IMG:  10m³ skip

IMG: 3m³ skip

Images of the skips are from: dialatip.com.au/Bin_Sizes.html

Another representation of 13 cubic meters

1 cubic meter:

So the total amount of fuel that brought down a tower that weighed 400,000 tons was:

one-meter-square-cube.jpg

IMG: 1 square meter cube

one-meter-square-cube-times13.jpg

Another visual representation of 13 cubic meters

01-2-cubic-meters-of-polystyrene-bagsx7.jpg

A visual representation of 13 cubic meters using bottles

faq-tonnex13.jpg

13 cubic meters is equivalent to this much fuel (in blue)

Boeing 777 (total fuel capacity = 45,220 gallons). Amount of fuel 9/11 WTC Boeings were carrying shown in blue.  Diagram adapted from aircrash.org/burnelli/tunnel_w.htm

Picture adapted from image from: whatreallyhappened.com/wtc1_core.html

COMMENT: 13 cubic meters of jet fuel was enough to completely obliterate one WTC tower in less than 2 hours according to the government.

Fuel tanks of the 757


757.org.uk/systems/sys1.html

A full tank in a Boeing 757

757.org.uk/systems/sys1.html

This is the amount of fuel (3,500 gallons) that remained to cause the fire in the Twin Tower according to FEMA.

This much fuel destroyed the Twin Tower

Witnesses

Another reason that we know the fires were not serious enough to cause structural failure, is that witnesses tell us this. The impact floors of the south tower were 78-84. Here are a few words from some of the witnesses:

Stanley Praimnath was on the 81st floor of the south tower: The plane impacts. I try to get up and then I realize that I’m covered up to my shoulder in debris. And when I’m digging through under all this rubble, I can see the bottom wing starting to burn, and that wing is wedged 20 feet in my office doorway.

Donovan Cowan was in an open elevator at the 78th floor sky-lobby: We went into the elevator. As soon as I hit the button, that’s when there was a big boom. We both got knocked down. I remember feeling this intense heat. The doors were still open. The heat lasted for maybe 15 to 20 seconds I guess. Then it stopped.

Ling Young was in her 78th floor office: Only in my area were people alive, and the people alive were from my office. I figured that out later because I sat around in there for 10 or 15 minutes. That’s how I got so burned.

911research.wtc7.net/mirrors/guardian2/wtc/wtc-demolition.htm

WTC Twin Tower collapse – analysis

Location: New York, USA
Date 11 September 2001
Damage: North Tower (WTC 1):
A Boeing 767-200ER series aircraft hit between the 94th and
98th floors roughly at the centre of the north face at
08:46.South Tower (WTC 2): A Boeing 767-200ER series aircraft hit between the 78th
and 84th floors toward the east side of the south face
at 09:03.The plane crashes caused considerable damage to principal
structural components and multiple floor fires above
the impacted floors.
Construction Type: WTC 1 collapsed at 10:29, 102 minutes after the crash.WTC 2 collapsed at 09:59, 56 minutes after the crash.
Steel perimeter frame-tube system comprising external
perimeter columns, central core columns and concrete
slabs on steel bar trusses.
Fire Resistance: Passive fire protection. Automatic sprinklers system.
Building Type: Commercial.
North Tower: 417 m (101 storeys)
South Tower: 415 m (101 storeys)


mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy

mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/CaseStudy

Temperature chart

whatreallyhappened.com/wtc1_fire.html

Straight-edged cuts suggest bombs

worcester.indymedia.org

Kerosene stoves, lamps, blowtorches

The metal in these pictures are in contact with kerosene-fueled fires but they don’t rust, crumple up, or shatter.

Kerosene lamp:

wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerosene_lamp

Pressurized burner stove:

wikipedia.org/wiki/Portable_stove#Pressurised_burner_stoves:

Kerosene heater:

sz-wholesale.com/shenzhen_China_products/Kerosene-Heaters_1.htm

Kerosene wick stove from India:

premier-india

Kerosene heater from China:

z-wholesale.com

Kerosene stove:

wikipedia.org

Iron cooking pot:

south-africa-tours-and-travel.com

Iron cooking pot from Kerala:

kerala-green-hills-and-backwaters

Metal barbecue grate:

sunilsawani.com

Timeline of the WTC South Tower events

The proper sequence of events: 

The North Tower has already been struck by a plane. The South Tower is on the left.

The North and South Towers

The South Tower is hit by a plane. There is a giant fireball. However this fireball does not last long and does not appear to cause enough damage to collapse any floors.

South Tower after being struck by a plane. Big fireball. (Note the white ordnance flash of fire ball). 

South Tower

Under the smoke, the extent of damage is not as great as you would expect from the degree of smoke

Smoke billowing out

Fire seen in South Tower. Helicopter at top. 

The amount of damage is the same as above

Fire in the South Tower is lessening somewhat. It is present in about three floors  911research.wtc7.net

The top part of the tower has collapsed. Plumes of debris are streaming down. A small mushroom cloud is forming on the left. 911research.wtc7.net

How much fire was there in the South Tower right before it collapsed?

 

911research.wtc7.net

Misdirection

The mainstream media want you to believe THIS happened:

The sequence in the misindirection is a fireball on the left, smoke and fireball are engulfing the top part of the tower. The tower starts to collapse. 

What actually happened:

There are small fires in the corner edge of the building on several floors. The tower begins to collapse.

This is a clear case of misdirection. Magicians often use this device to fool the audience.

For the official story to be true, fire had to burn, twist, and melt these beams from the 1st to the 110th storey in less than 2 hours

whatreallyhappened.com

rense.com

Case against thermite

Summary

  • Thermite is incendiary – there was very little flame in the WTC explosions; prior to the WTC explosions, fire was only present on several floors, not throughout the whole building
  • Thermite destroys by causing fire because of high temperatures. However, there were people still alive on the floors close to the plane crash site right up until buildings suddenly exploded.
  • The quantity of thermite needed to destroy the whole building is too great. Requires hundreds of thousands of tons of thermite to be brought in – see the car bonnet experiment below. Size of the hole is the same size as the flowerpot base.
  • Thermite needs to be applied next to the metal surface for it to be effective. Steel girders throughout the two Twin Towers would have to be stripped down to their bare metal surfaces and the thermite placed in close proximity. This would have been impractical and was not done.
  • Thermite is not strong enough to produce dissolution of heavy iron beams that weighed 30 tons.
  • Thermite explosions do not have sufficient energy to produce concrete particles of 10 micrometer in size; only nuclear explosions have this energy – See “A Physician Explains”chapter.
  • Thermite explosions cause a vast quantity of flame and black smoke; very little flame and black smoke was seen prior to and after the explosions of the WTC. White smoke plumes dominated.
  • Gelignite/TNT is more effective than thermite in building demolition
  • Thermite is used mainly in welding, not in building demolitions
  • Ignition requires a sparkler or magnesium ribbon – ignition of all the thermite in the WTC, if used, would have been impractical. Furthermore, ignition would have to be coordinated to occur at the same time to produce almost simultaneous and sudden instantaneous collapse of the building.

Conclusion

Thermite was not used in the WTC demolitions. Nuclear weapons were used to destroy the main scaffolding and the steel core. Additional explosives (TNT/gelignite) were used to produce sequential “top-down” collapse of the floors.

_________________________________________________________________

From: Thermite – Wikipedia

  • Thermite is a composite of metal powder, fuel and metal oxide
  • When ignited by heat produces an exothermic redox reaction
  • Most varieties are not explosive
  • Can produce brief bursts of high temperature in a small area
  • Diverse composition: aluminium, magnesium, titanium, zinc. Aluminium is common
  • Thermite is used in welding, often for joining rail tracks. Other uses: metal refining, demolition of munitions, incendiary weapons, fireworks
  • Thermites with nanosized particles are called super-thermite, nano-thermite, etc
  • Thermite is generally not explosive: it produces high temperatures in a very small area; heat focused on a small area can cut metal or weld metal components together by melting metal
  • Thermites used for repair of thick steel sections such as locomotor axles
  • Military uses: hand grenades, destruction of small-sized equipment such as cryptographic equipment. Incendiary anti-material weapon
  • Standard iron-thermite is difficult to ignite, standard thermite is rarely used on its own. Pyrotechnic additives often added.
  • Used as incendiary bombs in WWII

Wikipedia

______________________________________________________________

Quote from Instructibles:

Thermite

A mixture of iron oxide Fe2O3 (rust) and aluminum powder. When it is ignited the aluminum powder reacts with the O3 part of the rust in a highly exothermic reaction, the resulting product is molten iron. Thermite is commonly used in welding, because the molten iron has the ability to seep into cracks in metal.

Instructables

Note thermite is generally not used in building demolitions

_______________________________________________________________

Nano-thermite – Wikipedia:

Quote

“Nanothermites contain an oxidizer and a reducing agent, which are intimately mixed on the nanometer scale. MICs, including nano-thermitic materials, are a type of reactive materials investigated for military use, as well as for general applications involving propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics.”

“Potential Uses

Historically, pyrotechnic or explosive applications for traditional thermites have been limited due to their relatively slow energy release rates. Because nanothermites are created from reactant particles with proximities approaching the atomic scale, energy release rates are far greater.[1]

MICs or Super-thermites are generally developed for military use, propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics. Research into military applications of nano-sized materials began in the early 1990s.[2] Because of their highly increased reaction rate, nanosized thermitic materials are being studied by the U.S. military with the aim of developing new types of bombs several times more powerful than conventional explosives.[3] Nanoenergetic materials can store more energy than conventional energetic materials and can be used in innovative ways to tailor the release of this energy. Thermobaric weapons are one potential application of nanoenergetic materials.”

Wikipedia

Note that nano-thermite is not generally used for building demolitions.

_______________________________________________________________

Thermite vs. Car

VIDEO: Thermite vs. Car – abridged

Dailymotion | Youtube

From video: A flowerpot of thermite produced this sized hole in the car bonnet. It would not have been cost-effective to use thermite. It would have required at least 100,000 tons of thermite per WTC tower.

setting-tank-thermite.jpg

fuel-tank-8-liters-thermite.jpg

explosion-car-tank.jpg

From the video: Even though 8 liters of petrol were added to the tank and a canister of thermite was placed on top of the car, the car is still intact, even though it is on fire. In contrast, the WTC towers disintegrated into concrete dust and bent and twisted steel girders after less than two hours from the time the planes hit.

wtc-wreckage-exterior_shell_of_south_tower.jpg

URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/September_11_attacks

c95_mod.jpg

Very little flame was seen on the floors that had been hit by the planes FROM: NIST

_______________________________________________________________

Thermite Reactions – Compilation 

VIDEO: Thermite Reactions – Compilation  Dailymotion | Youtube

From this video, it’s clear how weak thermite is as a building demolition explosive. It does not completely destroy aluminium sheets. The bricks holding up the various objects remains intact throughout the experiments. Thermite doesn’t even fully melt the dry ice block.

“Christ School Honors Chemistry and General Chemistry classes ignite thermite over the following materials: Aluminum sheets, ice blocks, water, dry ice, kerosene, diesel fuel, silicon dioxide (silica), a monitor and a scanner. A thermite reaction was also mixed with iodine to produce violet smoke.”

6 pounds of thermite doesn’t destroy a single brick in this experiment

There were more than 500,000 cubic metric tons of concrete in a single tower. If 6 pounds of thermite can’t destroy a single brick in the video, it’s unlikely thermite was used as the main explosive for the destruction of the towers. The quantity needed would have to been too great as the destructive power of thermite is relatively weak.

6 pounds of thermite2-sml.jpg

Six pounds of thermite

thermite-bricks400.jpg

None of the bricks were destroyed by six pounds of thermite

brick-barbie-thermite-plutonium

6 pounds of thermite could not smash a single brick in the video above; however, it destroyed more than 500,000 metric tons of concrete that were in each of the towers, according to some people who push the thermite theory