Israel’s WMD Programs
A former biologist at the Israel Institute for Biological Research:
“There is hardly a single known or unknown form of chemical or biological weapon … which is not manufactured at the institute.”
Nuclear, Chemical, Biological Weapons and Missile Development
NUCLEAR WEAPONS PROGRAMS
• Ballistic missile weapons
• Free-fall (gravity) weapons
• Cruise missile weapons
Fission type nuclear weapons
• Free-fall (gravity) weapons
• Cruise missile weapons
• Theater range ballistic missiles
CHEMICAL WEAPONS PROGRAMS
• Tactical range missiles
• Artillery shells, mines, bulk agents
• Free-fall (gravity) weapons
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS PROGRAMS
• Intercontinental ballistic missile programs
• Land-based intermediate range ballistic missiles
• Air-launched land attack cruise missiles
• Anti-ship cruise missiles
• Anti-ship cruise missiles
MAP OF LOCATIONS OF WEAPONS PROGRAMS
Research stations at Beersheba and Dimona. Israel possesses thermonuclear and nuclear weapons of indigenous design
Biological Weapons Programs
Chemical and biological warfare research is conducted at the Institute for Biological Research in the city of Ness Ziona.
Chemical and biological weapons are stored at the Dimona sensitive storage area in the Negev Desert
Israel joins the United States, Russia, China, Britain and France as nations possessing hydrogen-based thermo-nuclear weapons. Its nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) programs are readily scalable and can produce additional weapons, should conditions warrant.
Nuclear: 10-20 indigenous designed thermonuclear free-fall bombs in the range of 1-4 megatons. 20-30 fission-type missile warheads and free-fall weapons in enhanced and variable yields of 10-100 kilotons. Neutron weapons and strategic atomic demolition munitions (SADMs), including backpack nuclear devices.
Chemical: Active program. VX, GB (sarin), SA (tabun), HD (mustard gas), and HDZ. In limited supply. Limited numbers of warheads, free-fall bombs and rockets filled and ready for deployment.
Biological: Dual use program. Only limited weaponization.
Missiles: Indigenous designed theater ballistic missiles. Jericho I, II, intercontinental ballistic missile. Jericho III intercontinental ICBM in service.
Israel is a net exporter of arms and military technology, including small arms, sensors and remotely piloted vehicles. Israel has also engaged in overseas espionage activities that have included assassination and sabotage.
Source: Russia Today: WMD IN THE MIDEAST: A pocket guide.
Chuck Pfarrer – Twitter
Nuclear, Chemical, Biological Weapons & Missile Development
Israel – The arsenal of an undeclared nuclear power
Quote: Despite Israel’s refusal to acknowledge its nuclear weapons status, its secret arsenal is an open secret that Israeli policy makers don’t go out of their way to deny. From its beginnings in the mid-1960s, Israel’s program has developed into one that rivals those of larger powers like France and Britain. Here, based on interviews with U.S. intelligence officials and nuclear experts, is a portrait of Israel’s strategic weapons programs.
• Tel Nof
Strategic weapons plants
• The Bor
• Nes Zionyaa
• Hirbat Zekharyah
• Be’er Yaakov
Source: MSNBC Research Uruknet
Strategic Israel: The secret arsenal of the Jewish state
Quote: “Israel has long maintained a policy of “nuclear ambiguity”: a calculated silence with neither affirmation nor denial of the possession of nuclear weapons meant to act as an effective deterrent, while allowing Israel to escape international censure and scrutiny. However, it has long been known that Israel is in possession of a substantial arsenal of nuclear weapons, as confirmed by Mordechai Vanunu, a former nuclear technician who “blew the whistle” on Israel’s nuclear program.”
Source: MSNBC Research, IslamOnline.net (March 2003)
Israel’s Nine Nuclear and Chemical Sites
VIDEO: Nine Israeli Nuclear and Chemical Sites ArchiveOrg
The video is from this website Al Ahed News, a Hezbollah site:
Israeli nuclear and chemical weapons locations (9)
1. Dimona, 150 megawatts, located in a nuclear research facility, is made up of a single building, is operated by approximately 2700 scientists and technicians, has nuclear reactors as well as a plutonium recycling facility
2. Nahal Sorek, 81 megawatts, located in Southern Ramla, operated by approximately 200 scientists and technicians.
3. Kishon, a river that flows into the Gulf of Haifa, is used by reactors that are set up in the area for scientific research purposes.
4. Al Nabi Robin, 502 kilowatts, located in the western part of Ramla City, has inductive reactors that generate electric power and purify sea water.
5. Kfar Zachariah, located in the north-western part of Al Khalil City, stores missiles delivered from Bir Ya’qub.
6. Raffael, located in the north-western part of Sakhnin, is a nuclear engineering factory.
7. Al Janah 20, located in Raffael, is used for assembling nuclear shells (for bombs).
8. Bir Ya’qub (Well of Jacob), South of Ramla, produces Ariha 2 missiles.
9. Eilabun, located beneath the grounds of Nimrin Village, east of Eilabun, from which its native inhabitants were forced out in 1948, is used for storing tactical nuclear weapons.
Screen captures are from Al Ahed Media video
Dimona: 150 megawatts, located in a nuclear research facility, is made up of a single building. It is operated by approximately 2700 scientists and technicians, and has nuclear reactors as well as a plutonium recycling facility.
Nahal Sorek: 81 megawatts, located in Southern Ramla, is operated by approximately 200 scientists and technicians.
Kishon: A river that flows into the Gulf of Haifa, is used by reactors that are set up in the area for scientific research purposes.
Al Nabi Robin
Al Nabi Robin: 502 kilowatts, located in the western part of Ramla City, has inductive reactors that generate electric power and purify sea water.
Kfar Zachariah: Located in the north-western part of Al Khalil City, stores missiles delivered from Bir Ya’qub (Jacob’s Well).
Rafael Advanced Defense Systems
Rafael Advanced Defense Systems: Located in the north-western part of Sakhnin; is a nuclear engineering factory.
Al Janah 20
Al Janah 20: Located in Raffael, used for assembling nuclear shells (for bombs).
Jacob’s Well (Bir Ya’qub)
Jacob’s Well (Bir Ya’qub): Located south of Ramla, produces Ariha 2 missiles.
Eilabun: Located beneath the grounds of Nimrin Village, east of Eilabun, from which its native inhabitants were forced out in 1948; used for storing tactical nuclear weapons.
Israel and weapons of mass destruction
Even though Israel has nuclear weapons, it is not recognized as a Nuclear Weapons State by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Israel has chemical warfare agents, as reported by the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment.
Israel has a biological warfare program that is offensive.
Israel had nuclear weapons by 1967, it is believed.
Israel is believed to have between 75 to 400 nuclear weapons
Israel’s nuclear weapons cover a wide range of weapons: neutron bombs, tactical weapons, suitcase nukes, free-fall bombs.
Israel manufactures its nuclear weapons in the Negev Nuclear Research Center
Nuclear weapons delivery
Types of missiles:
– Jericho 3 missiles – range of 4,800–6,500 km (one source in 2004 said the range is 11,500 km)
– Jericho 2 IRBM – road mobile missiles
Missiles are said to be buried deep underground.
Israel has submarine-launched nuclear-capable missiles – can be launched from Dolphin-class submarines
Nuclear delivery by air is possible: by F-151 and F-161 Sufa fighter jets; these jets are supported by refueling planes – a fleet of modified Boeing 707s
PM Ehud Olmert admitted in 2006 that Israel had nuclear weapons when he stated on German TV that Iran was “aspiring to have nuclear weapons as America, France, Israel, Russia”.
Much of the information about Israel’s nuclear weapons comes from Mordechai Vanunu, a former technician at Negev Nuclear Research Center.
Israel has not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Despite this, Israel regularly calls for a nuclear-free Middle East Zone, and Israel criticizes Iran and Syria over their supposed nuclear weapons programs, and insists that they cannot acquire them.
Israel has signed but not ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention, a treaty that bans chemical weapons production and use.
CIA report in 1982 identified a chemical weapon nerve agent production facility and storage facility in Dimona (Dimona Sensitive Storage Area).
Israel’s chemical industry is well-developed according to the CIA.
Israel is speculated to have a chemical weapons program at the Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR), which is located in Ness Ziona.
In 1992, 190 liters of dimethyl menthyphosphonate (DMMP), a chemical used in the manufacture of sarin, and an undetermined amount of two other chemicals also used in the manufacture of sarin, were discovered in the cargo of El Al Flight 1862 after it crashed near Schiphol Airport. The plane flew into a block of apartments at Bijlmermeer, a suburb of Amsterdam.
Israel authorities claimed that the chemicals had been clearly listed in the cargo manifest and that the chemicals were intended for use to test filters that protect against chemical weapons. However, it only takes some grams of the chemicals to make filters for this purpose.
The chemicals had been shipped under a U.S. Department of Commerce license. They came from Solkatronic Chemicals (now Air Products), a maker of specialty chemicals, based in Morrisville, PA.
In 1993, the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment recorded Israel as a country with undeclared offensive chemical weapon capabilities.
Former US Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense responsible for chemical and biological defense Dr. Bill Richardson said in 1998: “I have no doubt that Israel has worked on both chemical and biological offensive things for a long time… There’s no doubt they’ve had stuff for years.”
It is believed that Israel has an offensive biological warfare capability.
The US Congress Office of Technology Assessment records Israel as a country possessing a long-term, undeclared biological warfare program.
Israel has not signed the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC).
It is believed that the Israel Institute for Biological Research conducts research into biological warfare.
Israel is believed to actively produce and disseminate biological weapons.
Adapted from Wikipedia
CIA Report about Israel’s WMD: “Implications of Soviet Use of Chemical and Toxin Weapons for US Security Interests”
PDF file of the CIA report as described. This version is partially complete, showing only the relevant passages on Israel.
42. Israel finding itself surrounded by frontline Arab states with budding CW caabilities, became increasingly conscious of its vulnerability to chemical attack. Its sensitivities were galvanized by the capture of large quantities of Soviet CW-related equipment during both the 1967 Arab-Israeli and the 1973 Yom Kippur wars. As a result, Israel undertook a program of chemical warfare preparations in both offensive and protective areas. While we cannot confirm that the Israelis produce lethal —- agents, several indicators lead us to believe that they have available to them at least —- and non- —– nerve agents, a —- agent and several —– agents, matched with suitable delivery systems. The existence of chemical —- —- has been known since the early 1970s and possible tests detected in January 1976. In late 1982, a probable CW nerve agent production facility and a storage facility were identified at the Dimona Sensitive Storage Areas in the Negev Desert. Other CW agent production is believed to exist within a well-developed Israeli chemical industry.
43. Extensive defense exchamge agreements with the United States assist the isrqelis in achieving their CW development objectives. They nevertheless remain somewhat dependent on Western nations for protective materiel. There are few technological constraints that would prevent them from achieving self-sufficiency in that area. Financial constraints and competing priorities are more likely inhibitors.
Israel’s known use of chemical and biowarfare: typhoid, cholera and dysentery
Parts of the account below are adapted from Palestine Land Society: Traces of Poison: Israel’s Dark History Revealed (by Salman Abu Sitta, Ahram Weekly, Cairo, February 27-March 5, 2003)
Despite Israel’s frequent warnings about Syria and Iran’s alleged but unproven WMD to the international community, it is Israel that has the largest collection of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East.
Israel has even used these weapons. Below is shown Israel’s biowarfare on the residents and soldiers of Palestine, Syria and Egypt.
The biowarfare started even before Israel became a nation.
Zionists contaminate the water supply of the city of Acre
Acre Aqueduct that fed the city of Acre with water was contaminated with typhoid organisms that were injected by Zionists on May, 1948. (Modified map shown here)
Zionists targeted Acre by first showering it with mortar bombs. Then they poisoned the city’s water supply by injecting typhoid-causing microorganisms into the aqueduct that supplied the city its drinking water. This point of injection was intermediate between the source, located at a village called El Kabiri, some 10 km away to the north, and Acre, the target city. Between these points, the aqueduct passed through Zionist settlements, giving Zionists plenty of chances to access the aqueduct.
This information came to light thanks to the files of the Red Cross; these files became available in the late 1990s. The Red Cross reports describe a typhoid epidemic which hit the population of Acre in 1948.
- There were 70 Palestinian sufferers of the typhoid epidemic in Acre
- The typhoid infection came from the water supply
- Red Cross advised that a substitute water supply be built to avoid the water from the aqueduct because the aqueduct’s water was contaminated with typhoid organisms
- It was advised that chlorine be applied to drinking water before consumption to combat the contamination
- Immunization against typhoid of the general population would be started to combat the epidemic
- Movement of people from this region to other areas was controlled to prevent the spread of typhoid to other areas
- Non-Palestinian victims of typhoid infection included 55 British soldiers (125 sufferers altogether).
- This was the first time such an epidemic occurred in Palestine’s history according to the British
- The British denied the outbreak was due to unhygienic conditions, as the Israelis claimed it was
Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella typhi bacteria. It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi, a related bacterium that usually causes a less severe illness. The bacteria are deposited in water or food by a human carrier and are then spread to other people in the area. Typhoid Fever Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Vaccine – WebMD
– Zionists intensified their bombing of Palestinian areas after the typhoid epidemic struck and while the Palestinian residents of Acre were in the middle of a typhoid epidemic.
– Some of the Palestinians who were caught by soldiers were forced to drink cyanide-laced drinks.
– Zionists looted homes of Palestinians.
– Zionists murdered about 100 Arab civilians in Acre, by cyanide, shooting etc.
– Rapes of Palestinian women were committed by Zionists during this period. Rapes were easier to carry out because many men had been detained by the Israelis or were away resisting the Zionists. (The rapes were probably done to terrorize the residents and make them leave the area.)
– Men were arbitrarily sent to concentration camps even though they weren’t soldiers. This left many homes in Acre unguarded and many people defenseless against the violence of Zionist attackers.
– Water and electricity were cut off to Acre.
The Palestinian city ended up collapsing, all the inhabitants left, and the city was occupied by Zionists.
Conclusion: The typhoid infection was done to destabilize the region, create chaotic conditions, and weaken the resistance to Zionists when they started their campaign of bombing, harassment, arbitrary detention, murder, rape and sabotage against the Palestinian residents of Acre.
It can be deduced that the typhoid contamination of the Acre residents’ water supply was part of an overall program of the Zionists to de-populate Palestinian areas of Palestinian residents. Later, Zionists would move into the areas they had de-populated.
Campaign to spread typhoid and dysentery to Gaza residents and soldiers
Zionists struck again with more biowarfare two weeks after the Palestinian city of Acre fell–this time in Gaza.
Dysentery is an intestinal inflammation, especially in the colon, that can lead to severe diarrhea with mucus or blood in the feces. Medical News Today
A colon affected by dystentery. Sufferers experience bloody diarrhea.
How the biowarfare was discovered and prevented
Jewish saboteurs were caught redhanded with water bottles containing contaminated water near the water supply that delivered water to the army and civilians in that area. On later examination, the bottles of water were found to contain typhoid and dysentery-causing microbes. The people caught were part of a team of twenty whose mission it was to contaminate the water supply of Gaza in order to cause an outbreak of disease in the soldiers in the army stationed nearby and the residents of Gaza.
Report on the incident to the U.N.
A Palestinian committee submitted a report to the United Nations in which they outlined this attack and the suspicion that Jews were waging a genocidal war against the Arabs, using germ warfare. In support of this claim, the report details another biowarfare incident: the cholera attack on Egyptian and Syrian people in 1947/1948.
Cholera attacks on Egyptians and Syrians of 1947/48
Cholera: an infectious and often fatal bacterial disease of the small intestine, typically contracted from infected water supplies and causing severe vomiting and diarrhea.
Background of the contamination incident
In 1947, a UN delegation was in Palestine and other Arab nations to propose partitioning Palestine to give to some of the Palestinians’ land to the Jews. Out of the Arab nations, Egypt and Syria were the strongest resisters of this partitioning. Egypt and Syria had even prepared a military response to the proposed partitioning by training army resistance units.
Dr. W. Seth Carus, a researcher at the Center for Counterproliferation Research at the National Defense University based in Washington, DC, writes in a report “Bioterrorism and Biocrimes: The Illicit Use of Biological Agents since 1900” (February 2001) about ‘Case 1947-01: “Zionist” Terrorists 1947-1948‘. In this case report:
High death toll from cholera in Egypt
• 10,262 people died of cholera in Egypt (last cases were in January 1948)
• A smaller outbreak occurred in Syria, near the border with Palestine: 18 out of 44 people with cholera died. In response, the Syrian army cordoned off the area of the epidemic to limit the spread of the infection. Several Zionist agents were arrested for introducing the cholera infection; it was reported the army was their target.
• The allegation that the Zionists had a campaign to infect residents of Egypt and Syria with cholera was supported by the testimony of Rachel Katzman, the sister of one of the perpetrators who was caught (Horeen). Horeen’s sister said she met her brother’s commander, and he confirmed to her that the Zionists had contaminated wells used by Gaza residents with cholera organisms.
• Uri Milstein, a military historian and a far-right Zionist, confirms the deliberate contamination of the water supply to Acre residents with typhoid organisms in an email to a peace activist. In the email, he writes that the operation was called “Shlach Lachmecha” (“Donate your bread”). “Donate your bread” is a Hebrew saying that you should be generous because one day, you will profit from it.
Ben Gurion – Father of Israel’s chemical and biowarfare programs
Ben Gurion, PM of Israel, wrote in 1948 in a letter to a Jewish agent in Europe to recruit East European Jewish scientists, so that Zionists could:
“either increase [our] capacity to kill masses or to cure masses; both are important”.
Israel’s doctrine of ethnic cleansing
Ben Gurion’s doctrine towards the Palestinians was to cleanse them ethnically through:
1) Open massacres: shooting and similar attacks that would decrease their population
2) Expulsion: driving the Palestinians to leave their homes through harassment campaigns
3) Extermination by covert means: this would include the use of biowarfare
Ben Gurion and his genocidal plans for Palestinians have been researched by Avner Cohen, a senior fellow at the Center for International and Security Studies, and a researcher at the Program on Security and Disarmaments at the University of Maryland.
In a paper on Israel’s chemical and biological weapons, which was published in the Non-Proliferation Review (2001), Cohen describes the following:
• Gurion gathered experts in microbiology:
Ernst David Bergmann, Avraham Marcus (Marek) Klingberg (from the Red Army) and the brothers Aharon and Ephraim Katachalsky (Katzir) were recruited. They formed the Science Corps during the British Mandate period of the Middle East, before Israel was established. These individuals were probably responsible for the plots to create the epidemics described above.
• A new unit of biological research was formed called HEMED in 1948, of which Katachalsky was appointed the head: A research institute was built in Rehovot called “Weizmann Institute”. Within HEMED was a subunit called HEMED BEIT. This unit was devoted to the development of biological weapons. It operated as a branch of the Israeli Army. Alexander Keynan, a microbiologist from the medical school at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, was the head of this unit.
Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR)
Israel Institute for Biological Research is established
Palestinian Al-Taji family’s mansion near Nes Ziona; it was built in a citrus grove.
When the villages in Al-Nakba became depopulated of their Palestinian inhabitants by 1948, Jewish immigrants moved into the vacant houses. One large mansion, belonging to the Al Taji family, situated within an orange grove, west of Nes Ziona, became the home of the Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR). This institution was the destination for the cargo of chemicals, including chemicals to make sarin gas, of the Israeli plane that crashed in Schiphol in 1992. The institute’s building was expanded, with the building of more structures, and security installations were erected around the building.
Two fronts: a clean one and a dirty one
The Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) has two fronts: a clean one and a dirty one. The clean one produces “clean” research papers, and the dirty one conducts research on biological weapons within the IIBR. This research center is controlled by Israel’s Ministry of Defense.
Weapons with a non-conventional capability
In 1955, Gurion rushed through a project to develop weapons that had a “non-conventional capability”. He wanted to have these “non-conventional weapons” ready for use by the time the Suez Tripartite Aggression (Suez Crisis) was to take place, in 1956. This incident was the invasion of Egypt by the three nations of Israel, UK and France, an action that was initiated over a dispute about rights to use the Suez Canal, the only direct waterway between the Red Sea and Mediterranean. The aim of this attack was to regain the West’s control of the Suez Canal and remove President Nasser from power.
If the campaign to regain rights to use the canal failed, Gurion wanted the option of bombing Egypt, using bioweapons as well as conventional weapons.
On top of this, in 1956, Gurion signed an agreement with France to build nuclear weapons. Therefore, 1956 can be said to be the start date of Israel’s nuclear program.
Where is the Israel Institute of Biological Research?
In the 1930s, the wealthy Palestinian family of Al-Taji Al-Farouki purchased land near Nes Ziona and built a citrus grove. The citrus farm produced a bountiful crop: hundreds of thousands of boxes of Jaffa oranges were exported to Europe.
With the money from the citrus business, Shukri Al-Taji built a mansion on top of a hill. He also built a mosque nearby. In addition, his cousin built a residential compound nearby that consisted of several buildings.
The arches at the entrance of Al Taji mansion, now the home of the Israel Institute for Biological Research
Shukri Al-Taji’s home became the site of the IIBR. The institute’s main entrance is the marbled entrance of Shukri’s mansion. Other buildings of the Al-Taji family were expropriated by the Israelis: the mosque became a synagogue, and the cousin’s house became a mental hospital. Ten years later, Shukri died heartbroken in Jordan, where he migrated to after his house had been taken over by the Israelis.
Chasing the culprits of germ warfare
Sara Leibovitz-Dar, an investigative journalist whose parents came from Lithuania, has investigated the Gaza and Acre poisonings and the “shooting down” of a Libyan civil airplane over Lockerbie.
Uri Milstein, a rightwing Israeli military historian, identified the names of the officers involved in the biological warfare against the Palestinians, and this information was included in Leibovitz-Dar’s report, which was published in August, 1993, under the title “Microbes in State Service“.
Naeim Giladi, an Iraqi Jew, was lured to Israel by Mossad agents in the early 1950s. While working in Israel, he experienced the caste system of Israel, where Mizrahim (Jews from Arab countries) were treated as second class citizens by Ashkenazis.
He also found out about the bacteriological warfare against the Arabs.
“Jewish forces would empty Arab villages of their population often by threats, sometimes by gunning down a half-dozen young men so that the Arabs could not return. The Israelis put typhus [sic] and dysentery bacteria in the water wells to prevent the refugees from returning”. [The Link, Vol. 31 Issue 2, April-May 1998].
A Mossad agent, Victor Ostrovsky, claims that vivisection experiments involving the testing of lethal chemical and biowarfare agents were done on Arab prisoners, who had been brought to the IIBR compound for this purpose.
A plane crash spilling the secrets of Israel’s chemical and biological weapons programs
In 1992, El Al Flight 1862 crashed into a high-rise apartment in Bijlmer (Bijlmermeer) shortly after leaving Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport. It revealed a cargo of chemicals used in chemical weapons as well as a suspected cargo of radiological substances used to make nuclear weapons.
• It was carrying 114 tons of freight in total
• 47 people were killed it is estimated (more may have been killed as there were many undocumented migrants living in the apartment complex.
• 3,000 Dutch residents were affected by exposure to hazardous cargo on the plane, including chemicals and radioactive substances
• Symptoms and illnesses included rashes, difficulty breathing, nervous disorders and cancer.
• Initially, the Dutch and Israeli governments lied about the cargo, saying it comprised just perfume and flowers.
A science editor at a Dutch daily newspaper, Karel Knip, pursued the facts for several years. Much of the information about the plane crash and cargo has become available due to his efforts.
Schiphol Airport from where the plane departed; block of flats in Bijlmermeer on fire
Large cargo of sarin chemicals
Honest John warhead cutaway, showing M139 Sarin bomblets (photo c. 1960).
The M134 bomblet was designed for the M190 Honest John rocket warhead. The bomblets carried sarin nerve agent and when the missile was fired the bomblets were released 5,000 feet above their target. When the time came for the sub-munitions to be released a mechanical time fuze would cut the warhead’s skin and the bomblets were released. The weapon could effectively saturate an area 1,000 meters in diameter with chemical agent. WikiVisually
Dutch journalist’s report on El Al plane crash
The debris of the El Al plane that crashed
The apartment block that was hit by the Israeli plane
El Al airlines routes
Seven years after the plane crash, Knip published a report:
• The plane carried 50 gallons of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), the main chemical used to make sarin (a substance that is 20 times more lethal than cyanide). It is usually delivered in aerosolized form.
• The shipment of chemicals on El Al came from Solkatronic Chemicals of Morrisville, Pennsylvania. Solkatronic Chemicals was a subsidiary of Solvay, a Belgian company, a few of whose directors and a major shareholder had links to child abuse networks. Solvay is itself a member of the Belgian branch of “Les Holdings”, a supranational financial entity that serves the same people who run child abuse networks that cater to the elite of Europe.
• The chemicals’ destination was Israel Institute for Biological Research in Nes Ziona.
• The shipment had an export license from the US Department of Commerce
• The shipment of such chemicals is contrary to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The U.S. is a party to this treaty. Israel has signed but not ratified this treaty.
• Knip was able to identify 140 Israeli scientists involved in biological weapons (BW) research. This is probably a minimum number; many more scientists are believed to be doing research there.
BLU-80/B Bigeye binary chemical munition dispenser would have carried 180 pounds of VX nerve agent. Goleta Air and Space Museum
The symptoms and signs of sarin poisoning
Shells that contain sarin can look like these
1995 Tokyo Subway sarin gas attack
In March 1995, Tokyo suffered a subway sarin attack. The attack was perpetrated by a religious movement Aum Shinrikyo. The perpetrators released sarin, a colorless, odorless liquid, by puncturing plastic bags of the toxin with the point of a vinyl umbrella, killing 12 people, injuring 50, and affecting over 1,000 people who were on the trains of the morning rush hour and were standing on nearby platforms.
Japanese sarin gas attack in 1995. This occurred 3 years after the El Al plane crash, an event that revealed a cargo of sarin chemicals.
The gas bags of sarin in the Tokyo subway attack were punctured using the sharp spike of the tip of a vinyl umbrella.
Israel’s collaboration with other nations’ agencies and institutes
• IIBR has strong links with:
– Walter Reed Army Institute (USA)
– Uniformed Services University (Bethesda, Maryland, USA)
– US Army Edgewood Chemical and Biological Weapons Center (Edgewood, Maryland; centers are also in Arkansas and Illinois)
– University of Utah
The cooperation between the Israeli research center and U.S. centers suggests the possibility that the U.S. clandestinely performs research on chemical and biological weapons by using the Israel institute as a substitute research center. Therefore, this might be one of the reasons the U.S. collaborates with the IIBR.
Three categories of research at the Israeli institute: diseases, toxins, convulsants
Knip identified three categories of biological weapons (BW) research at the IIBR:
1. Diseases: Yersinia pestis (plague), Rickettsia species (typhus), Rabies, West Nile virus, Leptospira species (e.g. Weil’s disease), Cryptococcus neoformans (a yeast), Sindbis virus, Newcastle disease (birds), African Swine fever, Coxiella burnetti (Q fever), Western Equine encephalomyelitis, Semliki Forest virus, Brucella abortus (brucellosis), Pasteurella multocida (fowl cholera), Lassa virus, EMC (encephalomyocarditis), Legionella, Rift Valley fever, Marek’s disease (poultry), Coccidioides immitis (fungus)
2. Toxins: Elatericin, Saxitoxin, Tetrodotoxin, Pilocarpine-derivatives, Wasp venom, Elatericin-derivatives, Brevetoxin, SEB (Staphylococcus enterotoxin B), Scorpion venom, Cobra venom SEA (Staph.enterotoxin A), Cholera toxin, Bungarotoxin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, exotoxin A, Shiga Toxin, Conotoxin, Diphtheria toxin
3. Convulsants: Bradykinin, Psychotropic substances, Cannabis (hashish), Phencyclidine (hallucinogen), Chlorpromazine (anti-psychoticum), Cannabis-derivatives (tetrahydrocannabinol), Fentanyl (narcoticum), QNB-derivatives (hallucinogen), Enkephalin, Endorphin, Morphine, Etonitazen, Phencyclidine derivatives, Benzodiazepine derivatives (convulsants), Heroin, Cannabis derivatives (amino-cannabinoids)
Toxin research more popular at the Israeli institute because toxins are more deadly than microbes
Over the decades, research in this institute has moved from viruses and bacteria to toxins because toxins are more deadly.
Nerve gases used in chemical weapons that have been researched include tabun, soman, sarin, VX, cyclo-sarin, RVX and amiton.
Knip discovered close cooperation between IIBR and the British-American biological weapon program. These joint programs deal research into weapons that can spread smallpox, fungal diseases and Legionnaires disease.
IIBR also researches plant poison called elate-ricin.
A recent trend in BW research at the IIBR is the development of incapacitants that paralyze and disorient. Most of these incapacitants have antidotes. These have been used against Palestinians in the Intifada.
There is collaboration in biological weapon research between Israel and Germany and Holland.
Defensive research a cover for research for chemical and biological offensive weapons
Collaboration with the US is outlined in the Congress report, “Joint Medical, Biological and Nuclear Defence Research Programs”. Under the guise of doing research to find antidotes, researchers also work on identifying the poison itself. The director of IIBR as of 2006, Dr. Avigdor Shafferman, is a frequent contributor to the program.
Search for an antidote only a cover
Monitoring organizations turn a blind eye to CW and BW research in Israel
Organizations that are supposed to monitor and report on CW and BW research around the world, in order to prevent the proliferation of such weapons, in general, ignore the research done in Israel’s centers of CW and BW research. One such organization that turns a blind eye is The Preparatory Commission for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), in The Hague.
This happens despite the fact that Israeli researchers work at this organization. Their work in this organization includes guiding the organization on methods for detecting chemical weapons. In contrast, Middle Eastern and other nations that have an adversarial relationship with Israel are frequently the focus of attention of these organizations, even though little or no proof exists that they are actively engaged in conducting such research.
Binary munitions that deliver chemicals such as VX and sarin; note that this binary method is only used for munitions delivery of these chemicals and not for manual application of the poisons. North Korea has been accused of using a female Vietnamese woman to apply VX poison to a North Korean national using the binary method at Malaysia’s Kuala Lumpur International Airport. However, no literature exists showing how a manual application of VX toxin can be safely done by perpetrators.
Israel is made the exception
Even though Israeli researchers R. Barak (IIBR), A. Lorber (CHEMO Solutions), and Z. Boger (Rotem Industries) have proposed methods to detect chemical warfare agents, no international body is willing to use these same methods to detect chemical weapons in Israel’s case.
CW and BW monitoring methods available
Even though mechanisms to monitor BW and CW research is available, no one in the US or the West seems interested in inspecting Israel Institute of Biological Research. A former research has said that the institute tests every chemical and biological weapon known to man there.
Double standards applied to Israel
Even though Americans’ research is often criticized as contravening the rules of CWC and BWC, Israel’s research is never the target of the same criticism. (Israel has signed the CWC but not ratified it, and has not signed the BWC.):
– Professor Keith Yamamoto (University of California) and Dr Jonathan King (MIT) have criticized the American government claims that the the research into bioweapons is defensive, arguing that attempting to modify toxins (as IIBR does) can hardly be considered “defensive” research. Therefore similar research done at the IIBR, to modify toxins, cannot be considered defensive research. In addition, Americans and Israelis share their research on CW and BW.
More victims of Israel’s chemical and biological warfare
Nerve gas, defoliants, phosphorus shells used on crops, protestors, and prisoners during peacetime, and on combatants and civilians during wartime
There are many cases of nerve gas and other chemical/biological weapons being used by the Israelis on Palestinians and other Arabs:
* Defoliants causing crop failure: Chemical defoliants used on Palestinian crops to cause crop failure. This happened on 4 occasions: 1) in Ain Al-Beida in 1968, 2) Aqraba in 1972, 3) Mejdel Beni Fadil in 1978 and 4) Negev in 2002.
* Chemical weapons (hydrogen cyanide and other nerve agents): In the 1982 war on Lebanon, it is claimed that chemical weapons, including hydrogen cyanide and other nerve gas agents, as well as phosphorus shells (white phosphorus), were used by Israel against Lebanese combatants and civilians.
* Lethal gas against prisoners: Lethal gas was used against Palestinian and Lebanese prisoners.
* Incapacitants were used against Palestinians in Khan Younis (Gaza) in February 2001:
“First, the victims thought it was tear gas. It had a faint odour like mint. It smelled “like sugar”, one victim reported. It changed colour “like a rainbow”. Fifteen minutes later, the victim felt that his “stomach was torn apart, with burning sensation in [his] chest, could not breathe”. Soon convulsions started. The victim would jump up and down, left and right, thrashing limbs around, with a kind of hysteria. Some victims were unconscious. The victim would vomit incessantly and then pain would return. This would go on for days or, for some, weeks.”
- This event is well-documented. The victims were filmed by American filmmaker James Longley. He compiled a 19-page document containing interviews with 19 gassing victims, and doctors and nurses.
- These incapacitants were repeatedly used in Al-Birch, Nablus, and West Bank, and Gaza.
- The US government has not condemned the gassing and simply ignored it even though Suha Arafat (Yasser Arafat’s wife) drew attention to the gassing by Israelis in 1999 at a meeting at which Hillary Clinton was present.
Long term effects may include cancer
The long term effects of nerve agents and toxins are unknown. It is speculated that the long term effects of these nerve agents include cancer.
“On 3 February, 2003, Dr Khamis Al-Najjar, director of Cancer Research Centre of the Ministry of Health in Ramallah reported an alarming increase in cancer cases, especially among women and children. The report covers the period 1995-2000 and shows 3,646 cases, with more than half among females. The cases in Gaza are more than the West Bank. The report, citing the rate of increase, predicts that cases will triple in the near future.”
Cumulative exposure to toxins may increase risk of cancer
The cumulative effects of the Israelis using toxins on Palestinians may be behind the increased incidence of cancer cases among Palestinians.
The use of chemical and biological weapons by the Israelis on Palestinian populations is speculated to be part of an Israeli population reduction campaign aimed at the Palestinians. It has been noted that Israelis have long been paranoid about the Palestinians’ high multiplication rates.
Plot to poison Hamas leader
It was reported that Mossad tried to assassinate a senior operative in Hamas, Khaled Mash’al, in Jordan in 1997.
The agents were caught by Jordanian police who were near the site of the alleged poisoning, and Israel was ordered to supply an antidote.
It is speculated that the toxin that was allegedly used was Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). It can be applied to the victim through a gun from up to 50 meters away. (Gun’s range is 50 meters.)
Was this poisoning fake?
However, there are suspicions that the poisoning was a pre-planned plot and was faked, with Mash’al a willing participant in the conspiracy. According to this conspiracy theory, Israelis would pretend to poison Mash’al. The purpose of the fake poisoning was to boost his credentials as an anti-Zionist figure, so that he could more easily insinuate himself into the leadership of Hamas. Once he became the leader, he would act as an agent of the Israelis, the aim of the plot.
Was the assassination attempt a ruse to trick the Palestinians?
Was a radiological substance used to kill Arafat?
There is forensic evidence that PLO chairman Yasser Arafat was killed with polonium-210. Since polonium is rare, sufficient quantities of the radioactive substance to kill someone needs to be made in a nuclear reactor. This points to a nation that has the ability to manufacture polonium as the culprit. It looks as if Arafat’s assassination was done by a government that has the ability to make nuclear weapons and is not monitored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Polonium-210 is also implicated in the death of Alexander Litvinenko (see below).
Left: Polonium in its ore form. Polonium has got several isotopes. Polonium-210 is highly radioactive. The half-life is 138 days.
Points supporting radiological poisoning of Arafat:
A Swiss institute that examined Arafat’s hair, saliva, urine, and blood samples that were taken from his belongings said that the samples showed elevated levels of polonium-120.
In 2012 (eight years after his death in 2004), another toxicological examination, this time of his bones and other tissues that were exhumed, showed high levels of polonium:
‘fragments of bones taken from his left ribs and pelvis as well as remnants of tissue from the abdominal cavity and grave soil, showed “unexpectedly high” activity of polonium-210.‘
The level of polonium was 18x higher than normal. This examination was done by a Swiss team that was part of a group that held an enquiry into his death.
‘In August last year , French prosecutors opened a murder inquiry into Arafat’s death. In November , Arafat’s corpse was exhumed from its mausoleum in Ramallah in the presence of three international teams of scientists: the Swiss team, a French team that was part of the Paris judicial investigation and a Russian team.’
David Barclay, a British forensic scientist who had studied the 2008 report of the exhumed remains, told al-Jazeera:
“The report contains strong evidence, in my view conclusive evidence, that there’s at least 18 times the level of polonium in Arafat’s exhumed body than there should be … I would point to him being given a fatal dose. I don’t think there’s any doubt at all.”
(Above adapted from The Guardian)
How the alleged poisoning could have been done
“Arafat died on 11 November 2004. He had been transferred there from his headquarters in the West Bank after his health deteriorated over weeks, beginning with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea around four hours after eating dinner on 12 October.” The Guardian
The following is from The Guardian:
Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the PLO
Swiss scientists found levels of polonium 18 times higher than normal in first forensic tests on former Palestinian leader’s body.
The Swiss scientists who tested Arafat’s remains after the exhumation of his body in November 2012 discovered levels of polonium at least 18 times higher than usual in Arafat’s ribs, pelvis and in soil that absorbed his bodily fluids …
The Swiss report said … the results “moderately support the proposition that the death was the consequence of poisoning with polonium-210”.
Suha Arafat said the evidence in the report suggested that her then healthy 75-year-old husband, who died in 2004 four weeks after he first fell ill following a meal, was almost certainly murdered by poisoning …
David Barclay, a British forensic scientist who had studied the report, told al-Jazeera: “The report contains strong evidence, in my view conclusive evidence, that there’s at least 18 times the level of polonium in Arafat’s exhumed body than there should be.”
He said the report represented “a smoking gun”. Barclay said … “I would point to him being given a fatal dose. I don’t think there’s any doubt at all.”
The Israeli government, however, dismissed the report. “The Swiss findings are not conclusive,” said Yigal Palmor, a foreign ministry spokesman.
“Even if they did find traces of polonium that could indicate poisoning, there’s no evidence of how that poisoning occurred.” …
Dov Weissglass, a former aide to Ariel Sharon, the Israeli prime minister at the time of Arafat’s death, also denied Israeli involvement …
“By the end of 2004, we had no interest in harming him. By then, Arafat was marginalised, his control over Palestinian life was minimal. So there was no logic, no reason.”
Danny Rubinstein, a journalist and author of a book about Arafat, had a different memory of events. In the weeks and months before Arafat’s death, he said, people in Sharon’s inner circle talked constantly about how to get rid of him …
Arafat died in a French military hospital on 11 November 2004. He had been transferred there from his headquarters in the West Bank after his health deteriorated over weeks, beginning with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea around four hours after eating dinner on 12 October. French doctors have said he died of a massive stroke and had suffered from a blood condition known as disseminated intravascular coagulation, or DIC. But the records were inconclusive about what brought about the DIC. No autopsy was carried out …
Al-Jazeera said it was given access to a duffel bag of Arafat’s personal effects by his widow, which it passed to a Swiss institute. Swiss toxicological tests on those samples including hair from a hat, saliva from a toothbrush, urine droplets on underpants and blood on a hospital hat found that the belongings had elevated traces of polonium-210, the lethal substance used to kill the Russian dissident Alexander Litvinenko.
The Swiss institute said Arafat’s bones would have to be tested to get a clearer answer, warning that polonium decayed fast and an autopsy needed to be done quickly. In August last year, French prosecutors opened a murder inquiry into Arafat’s death. In November, Arafat’s corpse was exhumed from its mausoleum in Ramallah in the presence of three international teams of scientists: the Swiss team, a French team that was part of the Paris judicial investigation and a Russian team.
The Swiss team’s report states that they carried out toxicological tests on Arafat’s “almost skeletonised body along with residues from his shroud”. The samples, including fragments of bones taken from his left ribs and pelvis as well as remnants of tissue from the abdominal cavity and grave soil, showed “unexpectedly high” activity of polonium-210.
Alexander Litvinenko – a false flag radiological poisoning?
Russian former FSB spy Litvinenko died of polonium-210 poisoning in 2006. As this radioactive poison is usually made in a nuclear reactor, a state agency of a nation that makes nuclear weapons would probably be behind the poisoning. This narrows the list of possible suspects down. Polonium is also a very expensive poison. It has been estimated that the polonium that killed Litvinenko cost $10 million.
• Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84. It is a rare and highly radioactive metal with no stable isotopes.
• Due to the short half-life of all its isotopes, its natural occurrence is limited to tiny traces of the fleeting polonium-210 (with a half-life of 138 days) in uranium ores.
• Today, polonium is usually produced in milligram quantities by the neutron irradiation of bismuth.
• Polonium was discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie, when it was extracted from uranium ore and identified solely by its strong radioactivity: it was the first element to be so discovered.
• Polonium has few applications, and those are related to its radioactivity: heaters in space probes, antistatic devices, and sources of neutrons and alpha particles.
• Polonium’s intense radioactivity makes it dangerously toxic.
Adapted from Wikipedia
Polonium for industrial uses is usually made in a nuclear reactor. On the right is a small sheet of polonium.
Where do we go from here? Israel’s disregard for conventions and prohibitions
Israel and Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons Conventions
Israel has signed but not ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the treaty that bans the use, development and proliferation of chemical weapons. Israel has not signed the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC).
Israel’s lack of recognition of international statutes that prohibit occupation
Israel does not recognize the validity of the Fourth Geneva Convention on Occupied Palestinian Territories of the West Bank and Gaza.
One article of the convention states:
“The Occupying Power shall not deport or transfer parts of its own civilian population into the territory it occupies.”
Israel has been slowly occupying Palestinian territory over the years to the point where now most of Palestine is occupied by Israelis.
The green parts that are occupied by Palestinians; the white parts by Israelis.
Israel disregards prohibitions against causing injury and harm to civilians
Israel disregards the Geneva Convention article of law that stipulates that:
‘[To] willingly cause [civilians] great suffering or serious injury to body or health” is a “grave breach”, which, according to Article-146, requires all High Contracting Parties to “search for persons alleged to have committed or to have ordered to commit such grave breaches” and must “bring such person regardless of their nationality before their own courts”.’
Israel violates poisonous gas and chemical weapons codes
Other conventions that Israel has violated include the Geneva Protocol of 1925 on Poisonous Gas, and the 1993 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons.
Discrimination in the application of this law by the U.N.
Despite this, the U.N. dispatches hundreds of inspectors to inspect homes and workshops in Iraq but sends none to Israel.
U.S. a member of the U.N. Security Council ignores Israel’s violations
Even though Israel violates the conventions set by the U.N. against the use and development of CW and BW, the U.S. has never condemned Israel, and in fact, has blocked other nations from condemning Israel, and continues to conduct research into CW and BW with Israel, and allows the transfer of chemicals used in CW and BW research to Israel. In addition, the US gives Israel large amounts of foreign aid, the largest amount to any nation.
Furthermore, the U.S. frequently condemns North Korea over its alleged CW and BW programs, although no proof has ever been supplied by any nation for these programs’ existence. The Malaysian airport criminal case is still undergoing (April, 2017). The only claims that North Korea has these programs point to anonymous sources and unconfirmed sources within the South Korean intelligence agency. Many reports that allege North Korea is active in manufacturing and proliferating CW and BW emanate from Israeli sources (see Israel’s propaganda campaign section on this page).
*CW-chemical weapon; BW-biological weapon; CBW-chemical and biological weapons
Netanyahu frequently speaks about Iran and nuclear weapons while he never mentions the fact that Israel’s nuclear program, estimated to have produced hundreds of nuclear weapons, has already been exposed to the world by Mordechai Vanunu, a former worker at Dimona. Nor does he speak about Israel’s chemical and biological weapons.
Parts of the above are adapted from Palestine Land Society: Traces of Poison: Israel’s Dark History Revealed (by Salman Abu Sitta, Ahram Weekly, Cairo, February 27-March 5, 2003)
Bombing in Yemen – a possible tactical nuke used
Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear and Explosives (CBRNE)
Bioterrorbible – ISRAEL
TERRORBIBLE.COM: Despite the fact that the United States and its European Union allies have been researching, planning and drilling for a major bio-terror attack and the subsequent pandemic, the nations of Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea and Syria have been quietly set up over the last decade as potential bio-terror scapegoats. Based on the evidence available, it appears that the U.S., Israel and South Korea may be the future victims of major false-flag bio-terror attacks.
Israel is the only modern nation that has not signed the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (refusal to engage in offensive biological warfare, stockpiling, and use of biological weapons). Israel is also the only modern nation that has signed but not ratified the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (refusal to produce, stockpile and use chemical weapons). Based on recent news and events, the state of Israel is preparing its population for a major false-flag bio-terror attack. Should Israel be “attacked”, it is highly likely that Egypt, Iran or Syria will be scapegoated.
Adapted from Palestine Land Society: Traces of Poison: Israel’s Dark History Revealed (by Salman Abu Sitta, Ahram Weekly, Cairo, February 27-March 5, 2003)
US company Solkatronic Chemicals’ role in Israel’s chemical and biological warfare
Solkatronic Chemicals Inc. is the company that provided the specialty chemicals for Israel’s manufacture of sarin. Netanyahu claimed in 1998, six years after the El Al plane disaster in Bijlmermeer, that the sarin chemicals on the plane were needed for testing a filter to detect sarin. However, testing such a filter requires only a few grams of sarin.
If all the sarin precursor chemicals on the Israeli plane were combined to make sarin, 270 kg of sarin would be made––this is enough to kill every inhabitant of a major world city.
Solkatronic Chemicals is located in Morrisburg, Pennsylvania USA.
Since Solkatronic Chemicals had a permit from the US Government to transfer these chemicals to Israel, it can be said that the US is guilty of proliferating chemical weapons. The US is also guilty of proliferating nuclear weapons of mass destruction, to Israel and Japan.
The proliferation of nuclear weapons led to the deaths of 3,000 people in the September 11 attacks and to the premature deaths of at least 5,000 more people who are afflicted with cancer as a result of nuclear attacks on September 11.
About Solkatronic Chemicals (now Air Products)
Solkatronic Chemicals (now Air Products) Website
Specialty gases represent gases which are rare or ultra high purity (99.995% and above). Many industries, including analytical, pharmaceutical, electronics and petrochemical benefit from the unique properties of specialty gases that help to improve yields, optimize performance and lower costs. Our experienced applications teams around the world can use their knowledge of your industry and applications to provide you with a specialty gas supply solution to meet your unique needs.
Solkatronic Chemicals’ ties to Zionist pedophile networks through Solvay
How Solvay and Solkatronic Chemicals are connected
Research on fermentation in the Solvay laboratories in the 1980s. (Solvay Archives) Solvay: History of a Multinational Firm
Solvay was the parent company of sarin precursor supplier Solkatronics at the time of the El Al plane crash at Schiphol (1992). Solvay acquired Solkatronics in 1985.
In 1997, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. acquired Solkatronic Chemicals, Inc. Solkatronic Chemicals is a manufacturer of industrial gases, chemicals and gas handling equipment. Its headquarters is in New Jersey. It has a specialty gas manufacturing plant in Morrisville, Pennsylvania.
Solvay is an Ashkenazi name according to ISGP. Therefore the family that is a major shareholder of Solvay is Ashkenazi Jewish.
Whitson Sadler is the president and CEO of Solvay America.
Solvay America is a member of the worldwide Solvay Group of chemical and pharmaceutical companies. These companies are active in the following four sectors: chemicals, plastics, processing and pharmaceuticals. Solvay companies have operations in 41 countries, employ over 35,400 people, and, in 1996, had annual sales of $8.8 billion. Solvay America’s headquarters are in Houston, Texas. The corporate headquarters of Solvay S.A. is located in Brussels, Belgium.
SOURCE: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
Adapted from prnewswire.com
Solkatronic Chemicals sold the sarin chemical DMMP to Israel in 1992
The Dutch newspaper NRC Handelsblad reported that an El Al cargo plane was carrying 50 gallons of dimethyl methylphosphonate when it crashed into an apartment block near Amsterdam in 1992.
The newspaper cited a freight document that said the chemical came from Solkatronic Chemicals, based in Fairfield, N.J., and was headed for the Israel Institute for Biological Research in Ness Ziona near Tel Aviv.
Officials were not available late Thursday in Israel.
Solkatronic sold 480 pounds of the chemical used in making deadly sarin nerve gas to the Israeli government, according to Air Products spokesman Steve Morth.
The Israelis claimed the chemical would be used to test absorption filters, Morth said.
Solvay was the parent company of Solkatronic Chemicals at the time of the plane crash
Members on the board of directors of the Belgian company Solvay have been linked circumstantially to the pedophile networks of Belgium.
Etienne Davignon and Dr Karel van Miert were both directors of Solvay at one point in time. A witness has named both these individuals as being present at sex parties where underage girls were present.
The Boels and Janssens – major shareholders in Solvay – have been accused of trade in drugs and children in 1999.
The husband of Francoise Dehaye is named as being part of a child abuse network. Francoise Dehaye is a quality and innovation manager at Solvay.
Gameskeeper and/or woodsman of La Hulpe, the castle belonging to the Solvay family, has been accused of being a child abuser.
Chateau des Amerois, which is owned by the Solvay family, was mentioned in the (Marc) Dutroux dossier. Marc Dutroux was found guilty of abducting and raping underage girls.
The Solvays, Boels and Janssens are the families that are behind the Belgian arm of the “Les Holdings”. “Les Holdings” refers to the a vast industrial holding company cum banking empire which controls between 25 to 50% of the Belgian manufacturing industry. Other names for the Belgian branch of “Les Holdings” is “Societe Generale” and “La Generate”.
Grouped together with its subsidiaries, “Les Holdings” accounts for one-third of Belgium’s national income.
The Solvay family, Belgian royal family and the Vatican are shareholders in the Belgian arm of “Les Holdings”.
The Solvay family and the Belgian royal family are the major shareholders of “Les Holdings”.
All of Belgian industry and commerce are to all intents and purposes controlled by only a dozen holding companies.
A possible member of the Solvay family, Charles de Selliers de Moranville (some say his mother is Anne Solvay), has been accused by someone in dossier “X” of the Dutroux dossiers of being involved in child abuse networks. Another witness has also accused this person. This second witness says that Charles de Selliers de Moranville is an organizer of sex parties with children.
Chateau Genvel (a hotel) and La Hulpe (a chateau owned by the Solvay family) were the sites where Dechef (gamesman and/or woodsman) committed child abuse.
For more, read the links:
From History Commons:
It is later learned that the plane, a Boeing 747, was carrying several tons of chemicals, including hydrofluoric acid, isopro-panol and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)—three of the four chemicals used in the production of sarin nerve gas. The shipment of chemicals—approved by the US Commerce Department—reportedly came from Solkatronic Chemicals Inc. of Morrisville, Pennsylvania and its final destination was the Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) in Ness Ziona near Tel Aviv, Israel, which is reported to be the “Israeli military and intelligence community’s front organization for the development, testing and production of chemical and biological weapons.” A former IIBR biologist later tells the London Sunday Times in October of 1998, “There is hardly a single known or unknown form of chemical or biological weapon… which is not manufactured at the institute.”
Project: US Military
El Al Flight LY1862, en route from New York to Tel Aviv, crashes into a block of apartment buildings shortly after take-off from Schiphol Airport, located south-east of Amsterdam. At least 43 people on the ground are killed (The exact number of deaths is unknown, since many of the incinerated victims were undocumented immigrants). Information about the plane’s cargo and the crash is suppressed: El Al withholds information about the plane’s several tons of “military cargo;” 12 hours of videotape made during the rescue and clean-up operation (42 cassettes in all), along with police audiotapes, are erased and shredded; and El Al documents and the plane’s cockpit voice recorder (CVR) mysteriously disappear. It is later learned that the plane, a Boeing 747, was carrying several tons of chemicals, including hydrofluoric acid, isopro-panol and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)—three of the four chemicals used in the production of sarin nerve gas. The shipment of chemicals—approved by the US commerce department—reportedly came from Solkatronic Chemicals Inc. of Morrisville, Pennsylvania and its final destination was the Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) in Ness Ziona near Tel Aviv, Israel, which is reported to be the “Israeli military and intelligence community’s front organization for the development, testing and production of chemical and biological weapons.” A former IIBR biologist later tells the London Sunday Times in October of 1998, “There is hardly a single known or unknown form of chemical or biological weapon… which is not manufactured at the institute.” In fact, it was IIBR that provided the poison and the antidote used in the attempted assassination of a Hamas leader in Jordan in 1998. The IIBR does not appear on any maps and is off-limits even to members of Israel’s Parliament, the Knesset. Israel denies that the chemicals were to be used in the production of chemical weapons and instead claims that they were needed to test gas masks. But as an article in Earth Island Journal notes: “[T]his explanation is puzzling since it only takes a few grams to conduct such tests. Once combined, the chemicals aboard Flight 1862 could have produced 270 kilos of sarin—sufficient to kill the entire population of a major world city.” During hearings on the crash in 1999, it is learned that since 1973, El Al planes are never inspected by customs or the Dutch Flight Safety Board and that El Al security at Schiphol is a branch of the Israeli Mossad. Furthermore, it is discovered that every Sunday evening a mysterious El Al cargo flight arrives at Schiphol en route from New York to Tel Aviv. The flights are never displayed on the airport arrival monitors and the flights’ documents are processed in a special, unmarked room. [BBC, 10/2/1998;EARTH ISLAND JOURNAL, 1999; COVERT ACTION QUARTERLY, 10/20/2004] Over a thousand residents living near the crash site later become sick with respiratory, neurological and mobility ailments and a rise in cancer and birth defects is later detected among the population. [ZNET, 10/12/2002]
To read the section pertaining to the alleged “bio-terror” activities of North Korea, click on this link.
Schiphol El Al plane crash
Altaji mansion. Now location of Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR). The IIBR is located in Nes Ziona, about 20 km south of Tel Aviv, on what used to be the extensive estate of the Al-Taji Al-Farouki family of Ramleh, who were dispossessed in 1948. The family mansion that was the home of Shukri Al-Taji remains today as the entrance to the IIBR, which was built on the family citrus groves. From link
Below is an article from lawrenceofcyberia describing the Israeli airplane crash near Schiphol Airport and the chemical weapons manufacturing and testing activities of Israel.
04 October 2006
If you’ve never wondered why so much of the world thinks our justifications for invading, bombing, sanctioning and destabilizing various parts of the Middle East are a pile of crap, today might be a good day to start. Because today is the fourteenth anniversary of the Bijlmermeer air disaster, whose sordid aftermath opened up a whole can of worms relating to secret weapons trafficking and unaccountable government, which really gives the lie to all the worthy motivations we claim for our policies. If you want to know just how little our government and our allies’ governments really care for all those good causes we say we are bequesting the Middle East – rule of law, non-proliferation, democratic and accountable government, etc. – you only have to look at the Bijlmermeer tragedy.
At 6:21pm on 4 October 1992, a Boeing 747 airliner of the Israeli airline El Al took off from Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport for Tel Aviv, following a stopover en route from New York. The plane suffered catastrophic mechanical failure soon after takeoff, losing one right-side engine, which sheared off taking the second with it. The pilot attempted to loop back to make an emergency landing at Schiphol, but lost control short of the airfield. Flight 1862 crashed about 10 minutes after take-off into the Groeneveen and Kruitberg apartment buildings in Bijlmermeer, a working class suburb in south-eastern Amsterdam. Photo left (Associated Press).
The crash of El Al cargo flight LY1862 became the worst air disaster in Dutch history, killing at least 47 people directly, and destroying in subsequent months the health of hundreds of local residents. (Although stonewalling and outright lying by the Dutch and Israeli authorities meant that it was only in 1999 – after a comprehensive expose by investigative journalists at a Dutch newspaper – that a parliamentary enquiry officially acknowledged that the high rate of chronic illness among local residents was a direct result of toxic substances released as a result of the crash).
Local residents had suspected very early on that LY1862 was not a routine flight. Eyewitnesses reported seeing men in hazmat suits removing unidentified debris from the site immediately after the crash. And in the months that followed hundreds of local people and rescue workers complained of a range of chronic health problems, including depression, fatigue and listlessness, breathing difficulties and stomach pains. Tests commissioned by a Dutch citizens’ group revealed traces of uranium at the crash site and abnormally high levels of uranium in the bodies of survivors. An independent Dutch nuclear research group revealed that – despite government claims to the contrary – only about half of the depleted uranium that the plane had been carrying as ballast had ever been recovered. As for the 114 tons of cargo on flight 1862: El Al, Israeli and Dutch officials rushed to assure the public that the doomed flight carried nothing but “perfume and gift articles.” El Al insisted that the plane carried “a regular commercial load.” As late as April 22, 1998, Israeli Transport Minister Shaul Yahalom maintained that there were “no dangerous material on that plane. Israel has nothing to hide.”
Almost six years after the event, on 30 September 1998, editors Harm van den Berg and Karel Knip of the Dutch paper NRC Handelsblad published the results of an extensive investigation they had carried out into the crash. They had obtained the freight documentation for the flight, and made public for the first time its real cargo. The manifest confirmed the plane was carrying 400 kilograms of depleted uranium as ballast, but also showed that it carried among its cargo about 10 tons of assorted chemicals. The chemicals included ten 18.9-litre plastic drums of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), and smaller amounts of isopropanol and hydrogen fluoride: three of the four chemical precursors for the production of Sarin nerve gas.
A spokesman for Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu’s office immediately denied that Flight 1862 had been carrying Sarin precursors. When this was contradicted hours later by an El Al spokesman, the Prime Minister’s office acknowledged that the chemicals were onboard but stated that “the material was non-toxic and was to have been used to test filters that protect against chemical weapons”. An explanation that Earth Island Journal found “puzzling”, since “it only takes a few grams to conduct such tests. Once combined, the chemicals aboard Flight 1862 could have produced 270 kilos of sarin – sufficient to kill the entire population of a major world city”.
The Shipper’s Declaration of Dangerous Goods published by NRC Handelsblad showed that the DMMP consignment was en route to the Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR). The IIBR is located in Nes Ziona, about 20kms south of Tel Aviv, on what used to be the extensive estate of the Al-Taji Al-Farouki family of Ramleh, who were dispossessed in 1948. The family mansion (pictured, left) that was the home of Shukri Al-Taji remains today as the entrance to the IIBR, which was built on the family citrus groves.
The IIBR’s web site describes the institute as “a governmental, applied research institute specializing in the fields of biology, medicinal chemistry and environmental sciences”, though it is actually believed to be the front organisation for the Israeli government’s development, testing and production of chemical and biological weapons. A biologist formerly associated with the IIBR told the London Times on 4 October 1998: “There is hardly a single known or unknown form of chemical or biological weapon…which is not manufactured at the institute.”
The freight documentation showed that the DMMP was supplied by Solkatronic Chemicals Inc. of Morrisville, Pennsylvania, which marketed itself as “a leading and innovative manufacturer of ultrahigh-purity gases, chemicals and gas handling equipment”. (Solkatronic was bought out in November 1997 by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. whose web site describes the company as a “manufacturer of… specialty chemicals”, which is one way of referring to nerve agents, I suppose). As a chemical weapons precursor, DMMP is subject to tight export controls by the U.S. government, but Solkatronic confirmed that it had requested and received from the U.S. Department of Commerce the export licences necessary to ship to the IIBR the chemicals that went down with Flight 1862.
Following the revelations published in Handelsblad, the Dutch government finally established a parliamentary enquiry into the Bijlmer air disaster. The enquiry, under the chairmanship of Christian Democrat deputy Theo Meijer, heard testimony from about 80 witnesses over four months (Jan-Apr 1999), summarising its conclusions in a 2,000 page report. The main findings of the Meijer Report were:
1. that toxic substances had been released by the crash of Flight 1862 and ensuing fire, and that the chronic illnesses suffered by rescuers and local residents were indeed directly linked to the disaster.
But more enlightening than the commission’s formal conclusions were the peripheral details that the enquiry uncovered, which provided some interesting context for the whole affair. For instance, the commission discovered the previously-undisclosed tapes of conversations between El Al employees and Schiphol Air Traffic Control on the evening of the disaster, showing that within minutes of the crash traffic controllers knew that the downed plane contained “poison”, “ammunition” and “flammable liquid”, and that it would be best to “keep these things under the lid”. And the Dutch Attorney General testified before the commission that the El Al security unit at Schiphol wasn’t actually an El Al security unit at all, but a front operation for the Mossad. And airport employees testified that since 1973, the Netherlands’ authorities had allowed El Al planes to transfer cargo at Schiphol Airport without being inspected by customs or by the Dutch Flight Safety Board; and that every Sunday evening an El Al cargo flight arrived from Schiphol en route from New York to Tel Aviv, whose arrival was never displayed on airport monitors, whose cargo was not checked and whose documentation was processed separately from regular freight traffic…
It’s all a bit sordid isn’t it? And we’d never have known about any of it, were it not for metal fatigue in a pin attaching engine three to the right wing of flight 1862.
Remember this story when you next hear some cable news pundit pontificating about why we have to bomb those nasty people in the Middle East.
When you hear that we must bomb Syria because it allows Iranian weapons to transit its territory, remember how our own Dutch allies have been deliberately turning a blind eye for years as one of its major international airports is used as a transit point for our shipment of illicit, non-conventional weapons into the Middle East.
Remember too that at the exact same time that the U.S. Administration was demanding that Iraq be sanctioned and its children starved because Saddam Hussein was developing Chemical and Biological Weapons, our Department of Commerce was (and presumably still is) issuing export licences to facilitate the production of exactly the same weapons in Israel.
And next time you hear George Bush talk about the gift of democracy that we are bringing to the Middle East, reflect on the transparency and accountability of our own democracy, and particularly that of our Dutch ally, which preferred for years to leave its own citizens chronically ill and without a diagnosis of their condition, rather than reveal the kinds of operations it was allowing Israel to carry out at Schiphol Airport.
And remember when you hear that we have to bomb Iran for its alleged and unproven contravention of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, that the U.S. – a member of the Chemical Weapons Convention – really is faciliating proliferation of Chemical Weapons to a non-member state (Israel).
Just remember the aftermath of the Bijlmermeer air disaster, and you’ll never have to ask yourself again why so much of the world listens to our rhetoric, and thinks we’re just full of it.
Israel says El Al crash chemical ‘non-toxic’; BBC News, 2 Oct 1998.
Israel Institute for Biological Research
Photograph of the Shukri Al-Taji Mansion which became IIBR, the centre of biological terrorism.
More about Israel Institute for Biological Research below. There is heavy secrecy surrounding this institute.
THIS PLACE IS THE SOURCE OF MANY OF ISRAEL’S FALSE FLAG ATTACKS:
Title: Exposing Israel’s Most Dangerous Secret: What’s Really Going On At The Israeli Institute for Biological Research?
Date: June 24, 2011
Source: Counter Punch
Author: Saleh El Naami
Abstract: Drivers will only dart a glance at that mammoth structure nestled in the dunes south of Rishon Litsion southeast of Tel Aviv as they speed on their way. It is forbidden to turn off the Tel Aviv-Rishon Litsion highway onto the side road leading up to that building, which is barricaded by cement walls equipped with state-of-the-art surveillance and warning systems developed by Israel’s military industries.
That fortress-like structure is the Israeli Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) where Israel develops its biological and chemical weapons and prepares for any eventuality of biological or chemical warfare. It is the most top-secret military installation in Israel. So tightly is it guarded by military censorship that the Israeli press has to turn to Western sources for scraps of information made available to them, very intermittently, by special contacts inside the institute.
Only once has the Israeli press been given leeway to discuss what goes on behind those high security walls. That was last month when Avisha Klein filed a suit against the IIBR administration for harassment and emotional abuse. A long-term employee at the institute, Klein has served in various positions, one of which was as part of a team to develop an ointment to protect the skin from mustard gas. But this is only one of the many details that have come to light in the course of the proceedings, which have shed considerable light on the nature and scope of the institute’s work.
The IIBR is staffed by some 300 scientists and technicians employed in one or more of its many departments, each of which specialises in a specific area of chemical or biological research generally aimed at the production of chemical or biological weaponry. One of these departments, for example, is reported to have developed the poison that was used by the notorious Mossad assassination unit, Kidon, in its botched attempt to eliminate Hamas politburo chief Khaled Meshaal in 1997. Nevertheless, if there remains some question over the accuracy of this information, which was reported in Haaretz, no one disputes that the first time the institute’s products were used in an assassination operation was in late 1977 when then prime minister Menachem Begin ordered Mossad to eliminate Wadie Haddad.
A leader of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Haddad was accused by Israel of responsibility for several terrorist operations, the last of which was the hijacking of an Israeli passenger plane en route to Entebbe in 1976. According to a recently published book by the Israeli journalist Aharon Klein, Haddad had a great fondness for Belgian chocolates. Mossad obtained some of these special chocolates, coated them with a slow-acting poison, and had them delivered to Haddad, who was then living in Baghdad, by an Iraqi official who was a Mossad agent and who had struck up a friendship with Haddad. Klein relates that the deadly substance was first developed in the IIBR and that its slow-acting and undetectable properties ensured that the agent and the instrument of death would not be discovered.
And indeed, following a gradual but severe deterioration in his health, Haddad was flown to a hospital in East Germany where he was diagnosed with leukaemia and eventually died on 28 March 1978. It was not until 32 years later that the truth came to light: that the real cause of death was a poison produced by IIBR.
It is not unlikely that Mossad conducted many assassination operations in this way, so as not to leave its fingerprints. In other words, the seemingly accidental deaths of many individuals that Israel regarded as a threat may have actually been caused by substances produced by IIBR. Most likely, the poison that Mossad agents injected into Hamas leader Mahmoud Al-Mabhouh in Dubai in February 2010 came from IIBR.
According to information that has recently come out, the institute contains a department specialising in the production of vaccines against biological weapons. One of the chief focuses of research and development, here, was anthrax, which Israel fears the Arabs and resistance organisations will use against it in a confrontation. The institute also has a department for developing remedies to minimise and counter the effects of chemical weaponry. The whole presents a gruesome picture of a curious chemical and biological race, with the institute virtually competing with itself to produce antidotes to weapons that it, itself, is producing, or that it fears others will use against Israel in an eventual confrontation.
The IIBR works closely and in full coordination with the Israeli army and intelligence, which furnish the institute with their lists of priorities in light of their strategic threat forecasts. For example, information that has come to light during the coverage of Klein’s suit reveals that many years ago the Israeli military establishment was concerned that Arab states might use such chemical agents as mustard gas in an potential assault against Israel and, therefore, instructed the institute to develop a chemical substance to minimise the effects of the gas. Not surprisingly, the institute coordinates closely with the Israeli army’s medical corps, which receives the antidotes and distributes them to its branches in the military in accordance with demand.
The institute also works closely with Mossad and Shin Bet, the agencies primarily responsible for most of the assassination and liquidation operations against Arab and Muslim targets. Also, since Mossad and the military intelligence unit “Aman” are responsible for gathering enemy intelligence and presumably monitor nonconventional weapons programmes in Arab countries, they would instruct IIBR to develop the necessary biological or chemical responses to these programmes.
However, the IIBR has another purpose on top of developing and producing biological and chemical weapons and antidotes. It is also a major hard currency income-generator. The Hebrew Haaretz website reports: “The institute has received a grant of hundreds of millions of dollars to develop an anthrax vaccine.” The grant followed an attack in the US by a home-grown terrorist group that developed a concentrated strain of anthrax spores and delivered them to several individual targets in US; the vaccines that IIBR was commissioned to develop were destined for use in the US.
More importantly, we learn from the website that Israeli soldiers have been used to test the vaccines, causing some permanent physical damage. Reports of the internationally banned use of human guinea pigs raised moral hackles in Israel and sharpened suspicions that the lives of Israeli soldiers had deliberately been put to risk for the sake of financial gain received for promoting the security of another country, namely the US in this case.
The IIBR has a live animals department, where rabbits, pigs, monkeys and other animals are used in experiments. And perhaps human beings as well, judging by the suits soldiers filed against the Israeli Ministry of Defence after they were used in the anthrax experiments. The soldiers demand that they be officially recognised as disabled veterans and receive compensation accordingly. The case remains in the courts, but the IDF, caving into pressure from the families of the soldiers and public opinion, recently announced that it would no longer conduct experiments on soldiers.
It was Israel’s first prime minister, David Ben-Gurion, who ordered the construction of the IIBR on the basis of the advice of a number of Jewish scientists. Throughout his rule, from 1948 to 1963 (with the exception of the years 1953-1955 when ? Moshe Sharett served as prime minister), Ben-Gurion was directly responsible for the institute and every detail in it. The staff were forbidden to disclose to anyone even the smallest tid-bit of data or information without first obtaining Ben-Gurion’s approval. That continued to apply even during that interstice when Sharrit was in power, for when this prime minister visited the institute in 1954 scientists had to apologise for not being able to show him the programmes they were working on at the time.
Although many scientists have taken a turn to direct the IIBR, it is generally believed that the one to have left the greatest imprint is its current director, Avigdor Shafferman. Shafferman, who has been named in Klein’s suit, has the reputation of being something of a powerhouse but also being very strict and quick to fire staff members on disciplinary grounds.
Nevertheless, as significant as the details that have come to light in this rare glimpse into the workings of the IIBR may be, little attention has focussed on a larger truth. As the international community hounds a host of countries for pursuing conventional weapons programmes that pale in scale next to Israel’s, it refuses to budge an inch to deter Israel, which only encourages Tel Aviv’s belligerent and tyrannical behavior (Counter Punch, 2011).
UK AND ISRAEL DEVELOPING SARS-LIKE RACE-SPECIFIC BIO-WEAPON:
Title: UK, Israel Seeking To Develop SARS-Like Race-Specific Bio-Weapon
Date: October 9, 2012
Source: Press TV
Abstract: British and Zionist health experts are working on a SARS-like race-specific bio-weapon, which could be capable of creating a global threat through triggering a massive ethnic cleansing, it has been claimed.
The claim was made following the identification by the World Health Organization (WHO) of a new SARS-like race-specific virus that targets people of Middle Eastern decent. The original SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) resulted in the death of numerous people in Hong Kong.
The Zionist-led Israeli regime has been seeking to spot specific genes carried by human of Arab decent in an attempt to develop a race-specific bio-weapon that could covertly be exposed to Arab populations in order to commit a massive ethnic cleansing whenever necessary.
Anonymous intelligence sources have also claimed that work is underway to create genetically modified bacterium/virus as a bio-weapon which could be deployed through the air or water supply.
According to intelligence sources Israeli Defense, working with a British defense apparatus at Porton Down, is seeking to produce this race-specific bio-weapon.
Earlier in September, the first case of SARS-like virus was indentified in Qatar. The victim was transferred to Britain, where it was discovered that the coronavirus was similar to SARS as far as its structure is concerned. The second case was a Saudi-born woman who died after being attacked by the new virus.
The symptoms of the new SARS-like virus have been said to be fever, cough and other respiratory signals.
SARS suddenly surfaced between November 2002 and July 2003. An estimated 8,098 people of Asian descent were infected and 774 of them succumbed to the race-specific virus (Press TV, 2012)
Israel’s CBRN* propaganda and false flag racket
*CBRN: chemical biological radiological and nuclear
This “racket” follows these steps:
- Propaganda flooding – propaganda comes from different outlets and the volume is so great it constitutes a flood. The propaganda “noise” centers around drills done for imagined threats, other preparations and contingency measures for the supposed threats. These are all designed to make the threats seem real. The constant flow of propaganda acts has a brainwashing effect. The same nations are repeated over and over again so that the public comes to associate these countries with “terror”, “danger”, “threat”, “nuclear threat”, “chemical attack”, “sarin”, “weapons of mass destruction”.
- This serves to prime the public psychologically to expect an attack from these nations, so that when a terrorist attack occurs, the public will accept ver readily the explanation from the complicit media that the culprits are these nations.
CIA Fights Disclosure of Secret Aid to Israel
Legality of aid uncertain amidst public opposition
by Grant Smith, April 24, 2017
On March 30 Federal Judge Tanya Chutkan found it “neither logical nor plausible” for the CIA to claim it had no intelligence budget expenditure data of support to Israel between the years 1990 and 2015. The court then ordered the Department of Justice legal counsel to “meet and confer” about responding to the original Freedom of Information Act request for the data and file a response by April 24.
The original FOIA request sought public disclosure of the secret portion of US taxpayer-funded foreign assistance delivered to Israel. (PDF) Although “memorandum of understanding” packages, the most recent guaranteeing $3.8 billion per year over a decade, and additional Israel-bound appropriations passed by Congress are publicly known, secret US intelligence aid is not.
On September 11, 2013 journalist Glenn Greenwald revealed that the National Security Agency was pumping electronic intercepts of communications of American citizens to Israel, with no legally binding limits on how the data could be used.
On August 5, 2015 President Barack Obama quantified the possible dollar value boundaries of intelligence aid during a speech at American University, claiming “…due to American military and intelligence assistance, which my administration has provided at unprecedented levels, Israel can defend itself against any conventional danger…” Given historic military aid is publicly known, secret intelligence aid to Israel in 2015 was either an additional $1.9 billion per year or $13.2 billion if the president adjusted for inflation. These are the amounts Obama would have had to provide to meet “unprecedented” combined levels of military and intelligence assistance.
The question has grown in importance. The Trump administration has indicated that it will be slashing the US foreign aid budget, except for funding to Israel. This may make the percentage of total US aid received by Israel jump from an average of 9 percent over the past four years to 20- 30 percent or even more of the total foreign aid pie. This worries many within the Israel lobby who wish to obscure how disproportionate it has become. Also, according to statistically significant opinion polling, the majority of Americans overwhelmingly oppose US aid to Israel.
The legality of US aid to Israel is also under scrutiny. In February reporter Sam Husseini made Senator Chuck Schumer, an ardent Israel supporter, admit during a National Press Club briefing that Israel has nuclear weapons. Under the Arms Export Control Act, the US may not provide foreign aid of any type to nuclear weapons states operating outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty unless they comply with special procedures.
On April 21, hoping to avoid a public hearing, Justice Department legal counsel Joseph Borson made a second attempt to get Chutkan to dismiss the CIA aid FOIA lawsuit. (PDF) Avoiding entirely the topic of whether the CIA is providing intelligence support to Israel, Borson argued that because there are “17 separate intelligence agencies” it was wrong to for Chutkan to assume definitively the CIA had any budget data on Israel.
In an attached affidavit, Chief Management Officer of the Director of National Intelligence Mark W. Ewing cautioned that if the court forced the CIA to go beyond a “GLOMAR” response (neither confirming nor denying such information exists) it would reveal too much. (PDF) “If the CIA were to confirm or deny that a portion of its individual Agency intelligence budget relates to Israel, it would tend to show whether or not the intelligence assistance provided was related to HUMINT (a CIA area of expertise).”
If, rather than being forced to meet in court on April 24, the CIA manages to get the judge to throw the FOIA lawsuit out, the pathway it recommends to the information sought is clear. The plaintiff would have to file a FOIA with each of the remaining 16 intelligence agencies, either wait years for responses or sue them within 20 working days, receive their GLOMAR responses or citations of FOIA exemptions allowing them to withhold information from release—all without ever knowing whether the CIA had responsive data.
Or Judge Chutkan could order the CIA to release the information in court because it is in the public interest, as she did the Department of Defense in 2015, revealing the DOD knew as early as 1987 that Israel had a hydrogen bomb program.
However, the CIA may not be as accommodating as the Pentagon. It has long resisted public accountability generally and the Freedom of Information Act particularly. In practice, courts have little ability to enforce orders to produce information under FOIA or punish the CIA even when it willfully and egregiously violates the law. When ordered by a judge to produce the so-called “torture tapes” of detainee interrogations, in 2005 the agency instead incinerated them. The Justice Department, which rigorously defends the CIA in all FOIA cases, subsequently chose not to charge the agency officials responsible for violating the order.
Grant F. Smith is the director of the Institute for Research: Middle Eastern Policy in Washington and the author of the 2016 book, Big Israel: How Israel’s Lobby moves America. On September 2, 2015, he filed a lawsuit in federal court to disclose secret CIA intelligence aid to Israel.
Chemical Warfare Agents – List
List of chemical warfare agents
A chemical weapon agent (CWA) is a chemical substance whose toxic properties are used to kill, injure or incapacitate human beings. About 70 different chemicals have been used or stockpiled as chemical weapon agents during the 20th century. These agents may be in liquid, gas or solid form.
In general, chemical weapon agents are organized into several categories according to the physiological manner in which they affect the human body. Division may also be by tactical purpose or chemical structure. The names and number of categories varies slightly from source to source, but in general, types of chemical warfare agents are as follows:
These are substances that are not intended to kill or injure. They are often referred to as Riot Control Agents (RCAs) and may be used by civilian police forces against criminals and rioters, or in the military for training purposes. These agents also have tactical utility to force combatants out of concealed or covered positions for conventional engagement, and preventing combatants from occupying contaminated terrain or operating weapons. In general, harassing agents are sensory irritants that have fleeting concentration dependent effects that resolve within minutes after removal. Casualty effects are not anticipated to exceed 24-hours nor require medical attention.
These sensory irritants produce immediate pain to the eyes and irritate mucous membranes (aka lachrymatory agent or lachrymator).
These sensory irritants are also termed sternators or nose irritants. They irritate the mucous membranes to produce congestion, coughing, sneezing, and eventually nausea.
These are compounds with a very strong and unpleasant smell, which produce powerfully aversive effects without the toxic effects of tear agents or vomiting agents. Some military forces such as those of Israel and the USA have developed malodorant weapons in the belief that they fall outside the accepted definition of riot control agents, and therefore represent a loophole in the Chemical Weapons Convention.
These are substances that produce debilitating effects with limited probability of permanent injury or loss of life. The casualty effects typically last over 24 hours, and though medical evacuation and isolation is recommended, it is not required for complete recovery. These, together with harassing agents, are sometimes called nonlethal agents. There may be as high as 5% fatalities with the use of these agents.
These are substances that produce casualty effects through mental disturbances such as delirium or hallucination.
3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (BZ)
Other incapacitating agents
These substances have also been investigated as incapacitants, though they operate more through interactions outside the central nervous system.
These substances are for producing chemical casualties without regard to long-term consequences or loss of life. They cause injuries that require medical treatment.
A blister agent is a chemical compound that irritates and causes injury to the skin. These substances also attack the eyes, or any other tissue they contact.
The vesicants are substances that produce large fluid-filled blisters on the skin.
1,2-Bis(2-chloroethylthio) ethane (Sesquimustard; Q)
The urticants are substances that produce a painful weal on the skin. These are sometimes termed skin necrotizers and are known as the most painful substances produced.
Phosgene oxime (CX)
These substances are metabolic poisons that interfere with the life-sustaining processes of the blood.
Cyanogen chloride (CK)
These substances are sometime referred to as pulmonary agent or lung irritants and cause injury to the lung-blood barrier resulting in Asphyxia.
Nerve agents are substances that disrupt the chemical communications through the nervous system. One mechanism of disruption, utilized by the G, GV, and V series of chemicals is caused by blocking the acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that normally destroys and stops the activity of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Poisoning by these nerve agents leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve axon, producing a perpetual excited state in the nerve (e.g. constant muscle contraction). The eventual exhaustion of muscles leads to respiratory failure and death. A separate class of nerve agents are related to Tetrodotoxin, frequently abbreviated as TTX, is a potent neurotoxin with no known antidote. Tetrodotoxin blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes, essentially preventing any affected nerve cells from firing by blocking the channels used in the process.
These are high volatility nerve agents that are typically used for a nonpersistent to semipersistent effect.
These agents have a volatility between the V and G agents and are typically used for a semi-persistent to persistent effect.
These agents have low volatility and are typically used for a persistent effect or liquid contact hazard.
These agents are related to the puffer fish Tetrodotoxin
Israeli vehicle spraying the foul-smelling ”skunk” at Palestinian protesters in the West Bank village of Kafr Qaddum, near the city of Nablus in May. (APA Images)
Skunk is a crowd control “malodorant” developed by the Israeli police in collaboration with Odortec, an Israeli company that specializes in scent-based weapons, and tested on Palestinians.
Released at high pressure from a water cannon, canister or grenade, skunk liquid emits an odor — described as a mix of rotting animal carcass, raw sewage and human excrement — that sticks to walls, clothing, hair and skin for days to weeks and is impossible to wash away without a special soap that is only accessible to police.
Ramallah-based activist and writer Mariam Barghouti once told The Electronic Intifada that “the water lingers on your skin to a point when you want to rip your skin off.”
Specific chemical weapons
Sarin nerve agent
“The estimated 50% lethal concentration (LCt50) for sarin in a 70-kilogram man breathing at the rate of 15 liters per minute is approximately 70 mg-min/m3”
Toxicological Profile of Sarin Nerve Agent
Sarin is a toxic, relatively nonpersistent, volatile nerve agent developed in Germany during World War II and, subsequently, produced and tested in the United States. It is readily absorbed by most materials, but readily desorbed within a few hours after removal from the source of delivery. It evaporates at about the same rate as water. It exerts its effects by powerfully inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is required for proper nerve and muscle function. This inhibition adversely affects skeletal muscle, parasympathetic end organs, and central nervous system operation, thereby interfering with the fundamental mechanisms required for normal function of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The type and severity of clinical symptoms of sarin exposure depend on this agent’s route of entry into the body and the magnitude of exposure.
When the eyes and nasal passages are exposed to sarin vapor, the earliest signs expected are local effects, specifically miosis (pinpoint pupils) and rhinorrhea (runny nose), rather than systemic effects. However, if exposure is through the skin or by ingestion, the pupils may be approximately normal in size and rhinorrhea absent, while other symptoms (e.g., localized sweating, muscular fasciculations (twitching), and/or gastrointestinal disturbances) may be present. Decreases in cholinesterase in red blood cells (RBC-ChE) and plasma (serum or Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)) often can be detected at low-level exposures to sarin and, depending on exposure route and duration, before other symptoms, including miosis, appear.
Sarin’s effects may be cumulative if the time between two or more exposures is less than approximately 120 days, because it takes this long to restore cholinesterase activity to its normal level. Thus, repeated asymptomatic exposures to small amounts of sarin, if somewhat close together, can result in symptoms. An exposure dosage, Ct (concentration (C) in milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), multiplied by the exposure time in minutes (t)) of 0.5 mg-min/m3 of sarin is deemed the no-effect dosage in humans; less than 1% of a working population would show miosis (McNamara and Leitnaker, 1971). No systemic effects are expected below 4.0 mg-min/m3, no deaths are expected below 10.0 mg-min/m3, and the effective Ct for red blood cell cholinesterase depression in 50% of humans is 20 mg-min/m3. The estimated 50% lethal concentration (LCt50) for sarin in a 70-kilogram man breathing at the rate of 15 liters per minute is approximately 70 mg-min/m3. Chronic toxicity studies are not available; however, scientists infer the long-term health risks associated with low-level exposures to sarin from several human studies that used dosages causing acute (short-term) effects, several unintentional high-dose human exposures, and animal studies.
Sarin’s principal effects are on the nervous system. However, if a victim recovers from acute sarin poisoning, no long-term effects are expected unless the associated lack of oxygen to the brain and convulsions go unchecked so long that irreversible central nervous system damage occurs. One concern is organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) and its possible subtle effects on behavior, psychological state, memory and cognition, and altered electroencephalographs (EEGs.) Augerson (2000) reviewed numerous studies of OPIDN focusing on organophosphate insecticides that did not produce acute symptoms; the resulting information is insufficient to determine whether low-level exposure to chemical warfare nerve agents causes long-term effects.
|Chemical Name||Isopropyl Methylphosphonofluoridate||Cyclohexyl Methylphosphonofluoridate|
|State At 20° C1||Colorless liquid||Liquid|
|Odor1||Almost none when pure||Sweet, musk, peaches, shellac|
|Vapor Density (Air = 1 )1||4.86||6.2|
|Liquid Density (g/cc)||1.0887 @ 25° C1||1.1278 @ 25° C2|
|Freezing/Melting Point (° C)1||-56||-30|
|Boiling Point (° C)1||158||239|
|Vapor Pressure (mm Hg)1||2.9 @ 25° C; 2.1 @ 20° C||0.044 @ 20° C|
|Volatility (mg/m3)1||22,000 @ 25° C; 16,090 @ 20°||581 @ 25° C; 438 @ 20° C|
|Flash Point1||C Nonflammable||94° C|
|Decomposition Temp. (° C)1||150||not available|
|Heat of Vaporization (cal/g)1||80||90.5|
|Eye and Skin Toxicity1||Very high||Very high|
|Rate of Action1||Very rapid||Very rapid|
|Physiological Action1||Cessation of breathing; death||Cessation of breathing; death|
|Stability1||Stable when pure||Relatively stable in steel|
|Kh (atm-m3/mol)||5.4 x 10-73||2.8 x 10-7 @ 20° C5|
|Aqueous Solubility||Miscible||Almost insoluble in water|
|Somani et al., 1992|
|DHS, 1997a; Johns, 1952||
|DHHS, 1995; in ORNL, 1996|
|US Army ERDEC, 1994; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); 1996|
|Zajtchuk, et al., 1997||
Based on 70 kg man
|Somani, et al., 1992||
Based on 70 kg man
|US Army ERDEC, 1994; ORNL, 1996|
|Grob and Harvey, 1957; ORNL, 1996|
|Somani, et al., 1992; ORNL, 1996||
Assumes 70 kg man
|Grob and Harvey, 1957; ORNL, 1996|
1 Approximations assume a human weighing 70 kg, breathing 15 L/min, and complete absorption
2 75 x (5/7)
monkey weighing 0.35 kg, breathing 0.29 m3/day, and complete absorption
a AchE: Acetylcholinesterase
b MSC: Maximum
(mg/m3) = 0.001
(mg/m3) = 5
From The First Responder:
VX = O-ethyl-S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate
– an organophosphate
– LD50 is the lethal dose required to kill 50% of subjects
– VX is an oily liquid which does not readily turn into a vapor.
– VX droplets stick to surfaces, and a person can be poisoned if his/her clothing or skin contacts these surfaces.
– technology needed to make nerve gases is similar for making pesticides.
– pesticides act by inhibiting cholinesterase, an enzyme, and so do chemical warfare agents
– cholinesterase important for nervous system function
– sarin was developed as a pesticide in Germany (sarin and vx in the same family of chemicals=organophosphates)
What is cholinesterase inhibition?
– acetylcholine an important chemical that turns on switches in cells
– acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that breaks down ACH and turns off switches
– these substances act to control brain function, respiration, muscle function, digestion etc
– certain substances stop action of enzyme, so nothing to switch off ACH at cell synapses and ACH builds up
– build up of ACH causes twitching of muscles, convulsions and death
– one substance that inhibits enzyme is called cholinesterase inhibitor=nerve agent
– chemicals can be swallowed, absorbed through skin, eyes or inhaled.
– VX kills with just one drop on the skin, VX most potent
Symptoms of Cholinesterase Inhibition
1. Mild: tiredness, weakness, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision
2. Moderate: headache, sweating, drooling, vomiting, tunnel vision, tears form in eyes, twitching
3, Severe: stomach cramps, urination, defecation, tremors, pinpoint pupils, low BP, slow heartbeat, difficulty breathing, convulsions, coma, death
These symptoms can appear within seconds with inhalation or within minutes with skin contact.
Other symptoms: filling of lining of nose, lungs and respiratory tract with fluids.
Three symptoms first responders should look for:
1. small pupils
2. runny nose
3. shortness of breath
– Symptoms can appear in minutes or up to 18 hours
– one drop (10 mg) can kill
– early symptoms are muscle twitching at the site of the contact
– later symptoms are nausea and vomiting
– lethal dose will cause within minutes of exposure loss of consciousness, convulsions, stopping of breathing and paralysis
– Atropine injection
– breathing support
Table 1 lists LD50 and LCt50 values extrapolated to a 70 kg man obtained from animal studies, as cited in Lane’s Chem-Bio Handbook:
Table 1. Lethal Dose of Nerve Agents for a 70 kg Person
|Nerve Agent||Dermal LD50 , mg liquid on skin||Inhalation LCt50 , mg-min/m3|
From Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons:
Toxicity of the most important nerve agents to man
|LCt50 Inhalation mg·min/m³||LD50 Skin mg/individual|
*: LCt50 value is for the aerosolised form
The values are estimates of the doses which have lethal effects on man. LD50 expresses the dose at which 50 per cent of the exposed population will die as a result of their injuries. A different measure is used for inhalation, the product of the concentration (C) and the length of exposure (t). Again, L stands for lethal and 50 for 50 per cent effect. The toxicity sequence is the same for the two routes of exposure but the differences are much greater in skin exposure. This is mainly caused by the more volatile nerve agents evaporating from naked skin. If the evaporation is prevented, e.g., by tightly fitting clothing, the difference will be less.
In the Malaysian incident in which a North Korean man Kim Cheol was murdered, it was alleged that the man in the airport departure terminal was killed with VX. However, the Vietnamese woman who was accused of applying the poison to the man’s face handled the poison with her bare hands. Apparently she coated the palms of her hands with the substance, described to have the consistency of baby oil, before she wiped her palms over his face.
Since the dermal lethal dose of VX is 2.5mg-10mg, such a method of assassination would not have been possible since the woman would have also been killed in the poisoning.
Some people have suggested that a “binary poison” was used.
However, this method is highly implausible.
1. There is only evidence up until now that shows one person wiped the alleged victim’s face. The other woman, the Indonesian citizen, was supposed to distract the man.
2. Binary technology involving poisoning with VX involves combining VX with sulphur. This method is used in binary munitions. The technique for mixing the substances in rockets and bombs is complicated. The reaction has to be controlled. There are no reports in the literature that the binary method has been used with dermal application of the poison to a subject, using the bare surfaces of human hands as the mode of delivery of the poison.
Most chemical ammunition can be described as unitary, which implies that it contains one active ready-to-use CW agent. Binary technology implies that the final stage in the synthesis of the nerve agent is moved from the factory into the warhead, which thus functions as a chemical reactor. Two initial substances which are stored in separate containers are mixed and allowed to react and form the nerve agent when the ammunition (bomb, projectile, grenade, etc.) is on its way towards the target.
Until the actual moment of use, the ammunition contains only relatively non-toxic initial substances. It is therefore considered to be safer to manufacture, store, transport and, finally, destroy. However, some critics question whether this practically untested type of new ammunition is reliable. The technique for mixing substances in bombs and rockets is complicated and requires space. The reaction has to be controlled (e.g., the temperature) and the process should preferably take place without solvents.
In 1991 Iraq declared to the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) a different binary munitions concept. According to this the munitions were stored containing one component. Shortly before use the munitions were opened and the second component was added. Thus the reaction began even before the munitions were launched.
Binary components for the three most common nerve agents (American code names are given in brackets) are the following:
- Sarin (GB-2): methylphosphoryldifluoride (DF) + isopropanol. The isopropanol is included in a mixture (OPA) with isopropylamine which binds the hydrogen fluoride generated.
- Soman (GD-2): methylphosphoryldifluorid (DF) + pinacolylalcohol.
- VX-2: O-ethyl O-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonite (QL) + sulphur.
The principle for the use of binary weapons. Two canisters with the two liquid components are placed one after the other in the shell. When the shell is fired, forces of inertia will press the liquid contents in the front canister backwards and burst the wall separating the canisters. The rifling in the barrel gives the shell a spinning velocity of about 15,000 r.p.m. which contributes to the mixing.
Nerve agents have an extremely rapid effect. If medical methods of treatment are to serve any purpose, they must be introduced immediately. In many countries, the armed forces have access to an auto-injector containing antidotes to nerve agents. It is so simple to use that a person can inject him(her)self or another person without any dificulty.
One example is the Swedish auto-injector, which contains two active components: HI-6 (500 mg) and atropine (2 mg). HI-6 is an oxime which directly reacts with the cause of the injury, i.e., nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. HI-6 functions as a reactivator which restores the enzyme to an operational condition. Oximes have a poor penetration capacity into the brain and thus mainly work in the peripheral nervous system.
The various nerve agents cause poisoning which are more or less easy to treat with oximes. From this standpoint, VX and sarin are the easiest to treat and all oximes used increase the chances of surviving poisoning with these nerve agents. Obidoxime is the most effective against tabun poisoning but also HI-6 has a positive effect. Soman causes the most difficultly treated poisoning and can only be treated with HI-6.
Soman poisoning is complicated by the inhibited enzyme going through an “ageing” process. Following the ageing the enzyme cannot be reactivated by any oxime. It is possible that HI-6 has some further positive antidote effect in addition to its reactivating ability.
The other active component in the auto-injector is atropine. Atropine is the classical antidote in cases of poisoning by organo-phosphorus compounds. It is a medication which relieves the symptoms but does not attack the cause of the injury. Atropine becomes bound to the receptors for acetylcholine, which are present in the cholinergic synapse (see figure). When acetylcholine is bound, the signal is transmitted but if atropine has become bound to the receptor, then no such transmission takes place. Atropine thus gives protection against the excess of acetylcholine which results from inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. Atropine has effects only within certain parts of the cholinergic nervous system.
There are two types of acetylcholine receptors, the nicotinic which are found, e.g., in the skeletal muscles, and the muscarinic, which are found in, e.g., smooth muscles, glands and the central nervous system. Atropine blocks the muscarinic receptors. Atropine and oxime may therefore be considered to complement each other and the two antidotes also have a synergetic effect, i.e., they boost each other.
An additional auto-injector can be given to victims of nerve agents if their situation does not improve within ten minutes. Subsequently, the victim should be treated by qualified medical staff who should initially inject additional atropine and an anti-convulsant drug, diazepam. In cases of severe poisoning by nerve agents, large doses of atropine (grammes) may be required. The level of operational acetylcholinesterase is gradually restored by the body’s own production but this process requires at least two weeks. During this period, and possibly also later, the victim may require medical care not only for mental disorders such as difficulty in sleeping, amnesia, difficulties in concentrating, and anxiety, but also for muscular weakness. Mental problems may also occur efter long exposure to extremely low concentrations to nerve agents.
There are also medical antidotes which can be taken preventively. These antidotes are taken as tablets and used when ordered in connection with maximum C-preparedness. One of the tablets contains a carbamate, pyridostigmine, as active ingredient. Pyridostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase and protects the enzyme against inhibitory effects of nerve agents. The dose is low and leads to about 25 per cent inhibition. The pyridostigmine-inhibited enzyme is continuously released to active state and thereby can reasonably effectively maintain the transfer of nerve impulses despite injury caused by nerve agents. The effect is restricted to the peripheral cholinergic nervous system since the substance does not enter the brain. Pyridostigmine does not cause any side effects since there is a large excess of enzyme in the cholinergic synapse. In actual fact, 1-2 per cent of functional enzyme is sufficient to have a functioning synapse. This explains why carbamate pretreatment has such good effect.
Pretreatment with carbamate should be combined with oxime therapy (the auto-injector) after the poisoning in order to provide maximum effect. This combination reduces the toxic effects of all nerve agents.
A diazepam tablet is also generally given as a pretreatment, primarily affecting the central nervous system. Diazepam strengthens the effect of other nerve agent antidotes. There will be better prospects of survival and less injury. Diazepam also provides protection against permanent brain damage which may result from heavy exposure to nerve agents.
Pretreatment has best effect if a warning system is available and operative, since the tablets need about 30 min. to have effect after being swallowed. The best protective effect is achieved after about two hours, which is followed by decreasing efficacy. If the situation so requires, treatment can be repeated at eight-hourly intervals for some days. The tablets should not be taken once nerve agent injury has occurred. Admittedly, diazepam has a positive effect but pyridostigmine at that stage will aggravate the injury.
Nine Nuclear and Chemical Sites
Israeli Professor Says “We Could Destroy All European Capitals”
Jerusalem: February 1, 2004 (IAP News)
An Israeli professor and military historian hinted that Israel could avenge the holocaust by annihilating millions of Germans and other Europeans.
Speaking during an interview which was published in Jerusalem Friday, Professor Marin Van Creveld said Israel hads the capability of hitting most European capitals with nuclear weapons.
“We possess several hundred atomic warheads and rockets and can launch them at targets in all directions, perhaps even at Rome. Most European capitals are targets of our air force.”
Creveld, a professor of military history at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, pointed out that “collective deportation” was Israel’s only meaningful strategy towards the Palestinian people.
“The Palestinians should all be deported. The people who strive for this (the Israeli government) are waiting only for the right man and the right time. Two years ago, only seven or eight percent of Israelis were of the opinion that this would be the best solution, two months ago it was 33 percent, and now, according to a Gallup poll, the figure is 44 percent.”
Creveld said he was sure that Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon wanted to deport the Palestinians.
“I think it’s quite possible that he wants to do that. He wants to escalate the conflict. He knows that nothing else we do will succeed.”
Asked if he was worried about Israel becoming a rogue state if it carried out a genocidal deportation against Palestinians, Creveld quoted former Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan who said “Israel must be like a mad dog, too dangerous to bother.”
Creveld argued that Israel wouldn’t care much about becoming a rogue state.
“Our armed forces are not the thirtieth strongest in the world, but rather the second or third. We have the capability to take the world down with us. And I can assure you that this will happen before Israel goes under.”
Israel has submarines that can launch nuclear warheads
The Germans Are Shocked, Shocked. . .
by James Dunnigan
June 8, 2012: German media are running stories revealing proof that German built Israeli submarines were equipped, in Germany, with a special hydraulic ejection (from torpedo tubes) systems for launching missiles with nuclear warheads. This is actually misleading, as well as being old news. The German built Dolphin class subs have long had the ability to launch Harpoon anti-ship missiles and longer range cruise missiles from the torpedo tubes. It makes no difference if the warhead has high-explosives or a nuclear bomb in it.
For over a decade Israel and Germany have played down this capability. For example, a decade ago Israel denied that it had submarines capable of firing cruise missiles equipped with nuclear warheads. But the U.S. navy had reported spotting such missiles being tested by an Israeli sub in the Indian Ocean two years earlier.
Twelve years ago it was widely reported that Israeli’s Dolphin class subs were being equipped with nuclear weapons. The 135 kilometer range Harpoon missiles were being modified to carry a nuclear warhead and Israel was developing a submarine launched 350 kilometer range cruise missile. Both of these weapons were launched from the subs torpedo tubes. Since then Israel has developed a new cruise missile, with a range of 1,500 kilometers and carrying a 200 kiloton nuclear warhead.
Read more: StrategyWorld.com
Dimona nuclear reactor
Suspected Use of Nuclear Weapons by Israel
Israel and weapons of mass destruction
Israel is widely believed to possess weapons of mass destruction, and to be one of four nuclear-armed countries not recognized as a Nuclear Weapons State by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The US Congress Office of Technology Assessment has recorded Israel as a country generally reported as having undeclared chemical warfare capabilities, and an offensive biological warfare program. Officially Israel neither confirms nor denies possessing nuclear weapons.
It is believed that Israel had possessed an operational nuclear weapons capability by 1967, with the mass production of nuclear warheads occurring immediately after the Six-Day War. Although no official statistics exist, estimates of Israeli nuclear weapons range from 75 to as many as 400. It is unknown if Israel’s reported thermonuclear weapons are in the megaton range. Israel is also reported to possess a wide range of different systems, including neutron bombs, tactical nuclear weapons, and suitcase nukes. Israel is believed to manufacture its nuclear weapons at the Negev Nuclear Research Center.
Nuclear weapons delivery
Nuclear weapons delivery mechanisms include Jericho 3 missiles, with a range of 4,800 km to 6,500 km (though a 2004 source estimated its range at up to 11,500 km), and which are believed to provide a second-strike option, as well as regional coverage from road mobile Jericho 2 IRBMs. Israel’s nuclear-capable ballistic missiles are believed to be buried so far underground that they would survive a nuclear attack. Additionally, Israel is believed to have an offshore nuclear second-strike capability, using submarine-launched nuclear-capable cruise missiles, which can be launched from the Israeli Navy’s Dolphin-class submarines. The Israeli Air Force has F-15I and F-16I Sufa fighter aircraft are capable of delivering tactical and strategic nuclear weapons at long distances using conformal fuel tanks and supported by their aerial refueling fleet of modified Boeing 707’s.
In 2006, then Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert appeared to acknowledge that Israel had nuclear weapons when he stated on German TV that Iran was “aspiring to have nuclear weapons as America, France, Israel, Russia”. This admission was in contrast to the long-running Israeli government policy of deliberate ambiguity on whether it has nuclear weapons. The policy held that Israel would “not be the first to introduce nuclear weapons in the Middle East.” Former International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Mohamed ElBaradei regarded Israel as a state possessing nuclear weapons. Much of what is known about Israel’s nuclear program comes from revelations in 1986 by Mordechai Vanunu, a technician at the Negev Nuclear Research Center who served an 18-year prison sentence as a result. Israel has not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, but supports establishment of a Middle East Zone free of weapons of mass destruction.
Israel has signed but not ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). In 1983 a report by the CIA stated that Israel, after “finding itself surrounded by frontline Arab states with budding CW capabilities, became increasingly conscious of its vulnerability to chemical attack… undertook a program of chemical warfare preparations in both offensive and protective areas… In late 1982 a probable CW nerve agent production facility and a storage facility were identified at the Dimona Sensitive Storage Area in the Negev Desert. Other CW agent production is believed to exist within a well-developed Israeli chemical industry.”
There are also speculations that a chemical weapons program might be located at the Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR) in Ness Ziona.
190 liters of dimethyl methylphosphonate, a CWC schedule 2 chemical used in the synthesis of sarin nerve gas, was discovered in the cargo of El Al Flight 1862 after it crashed in 1992 en route to Tel Aviv. Israel insisted the material was non-toxic, was to have been used to test filters that protect against chemical weapons, and that it had been clearly listed on the cargo manifest in accordance with international regulations. The shipment was from a U.S. chemical plant to the IIBR under a U.S. Department of Commerce license.
In 1993, the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment WMD proliferation assessment recorded Israel as a country generally reported as having undeclared offensive chemical warfare capabilities. Former US deputy assistant secretary of defense responsible for chemical and biological defense Dr. Bill Richardson said in 1998 “I have no doubt that Israel has worked on both chemical and biological offensive things for a long time… There’s no doubt they’ve had stuff for years.”
Israel is believed to have developed an offensive biological warfare capability. The US Congress Office of Technology Assessment records Israel as a country possessing a long-term, undeclared biological warfare program. Israel is not a signatory to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). It is assumed that the Israel Institute for Biological Research in Ness Ziona develops vaccines and antidotes for chemical and biological warfare. It has not been possible to conclude whether Israel currently maintains an offensive biological weapons program; it is speculated that Israel retains an active ability to produce and disseminate biological weapons.
From Palestine Land Society:
Traces of Poison–Israel’s Dark History Revealed
Salman Abu Sitta, Ahram Weekly, Cairo, February 27-March 5, 2003
Israel, not Iraq, holds that distinction of being the first country in the region to use weapons of mass destruction with genocidal intent. Salman Abu Sitta* digs into a dark history.
At a time when TV screens are filled with images of perceived weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in Iraq among people who are on the verge of starvation, the West turns a blind eye to the first biological terrorist in the Middle East, Israel, where the largest depot of WMD between London and Peking is located.
Acre Aqueduct feeding the city was poisoned by typhoid injected by Zionists in May 1948.
When confronted with the anomaly, the United States ambassador to the UN, John Negroponti, responds with typical cynicism, “Israel did not use these weapons against its people or its neighbours”. Assuming that the ambassador is well-informed, this statement is a patent lie. Israel used biological weapons even before it was created on Arab soil in 1948 and ever since. The purpose, according to Ben Gurion, is genocide, and if not complete, the purpose is not to allow the dispossessed Palestinians to return to their homes.
POISONING ACRE WATER SUPPLY:
In the wake of Haifa’s occupation on 23 April 1948 by the Zionists, under the nose of the British Mandate forces commended by General Stockwell, a man still historically discredited for this failure, thousands converged on Acre, a nearby city, which was still Arab under the “protection” of the British forces.
Acre was to be the next Zionist target. The Zionists besieged the city from the land side, and started showering the population with a hail of mortar bombs day and night. Famous for its historical walls, Acre could stand the siege for a long time. The city water supply comes from a nearby village, Kabri, about 10kms to the north, through an aqueduct. The Zionists injected typhoid in the aqueduct at some intermediate point which passes through Zionist settlements. (see map)
The story can now be told, thanks to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) files which have now become available, 50 years after the event. A series of reports, under the reference G59/1/GC, G3/82, sent by ICRC delegate de Meuron from 6 May to about 19 May 1948 describe the conditions of the city population, struck by a sudden typhoid epidemic, and the efforts to combat it.
The location of IIBR and the roads leading to it.
Of particular importance are the minutes of an emergency conference held at the Lebanese Red Cross Hospital in Acre on 6 May, to deal with the typhoid epidemic. The meeting was attended by: Brigadier Beveridge, Chief of British Medical Services and Colonel Bonnet of the British Army, Dr Maclean of the Medical Services, Mr de Meuron, ICRC delegate in addition to other officials of the city. The minutes stated that there are at least 70 known civilian casualties, others may not be reported. It was determined that the infection is “water borne”, not due to crowded or unhygienic conditions as claimed by the Israelis. It was decided that a substitute water supply should now come from artesian wells or from the agricultural station, just north of Acre (see map), not from the aqueduct. Water chlorine solution was applied, inoculation of civil population started, movement of civil population was controlled (lest refugees heading north towards Lebanon will carry the typhoid epidemic with them, as intended by the Zionists).
Photograph of the Shukri Al-Taji Mansion which became IIBR, the centre of biological terrorism.
In his other reports, de Meuron mentioned 55 casualties among British soldiers, who were spirited away to Port Said for hospitalisation. General Stockwell arranged for de Meuron to fly on a military plane to Jerusalem to fetch medicine. The British, who left Palestine in the hands of the Jews, did not want another embarrassing incident to delay their departure.
Brigadier Beveridge told de Meuron that this is “the first time this happened in Palestine”. This belies the Israeli story, including that of the Israeli historian Benny Morris, that the epidemic is due to “unhygienic conditions” of the refugees. If that was so, how come there was an almost equal number of casualties among British soldiers? Why did such conditions not cause epidemic in such other concentrations of refugees, under far worse conditions, in Jaffa, Lydda, Nazareth and Gaza?
ICRC delegate, de Meuron admired greatly the heroic efforts of Arab doctors, Al-Dahhan and Al-Araj from the Lebanese Red Cross hospital in Acre, Dr Dabbas from Haifa and Mrs Bahai from Haifa.
The city of Acre, now burdened by the epidemic, fell easy prey to the Zionists. They intensified their bombardment. Trucks carrying loudspeakers proclaimed, “Surrender or commit suicide. We will destroy you to the last man”. That was not a figure of speech. Palumbo, in The Palestinian Catastrophe, notes the “typical” case of Mohamed Fayez Soufi. Soufi with friends went to get food from their homes in a new Acre suburb. They were caught by Zionist soldiers and forced at gun point to drink cyanide. Soufi faked swallowing the poison. The others were not so lucky, they died in half an hour.
Lieutenant Petite, a French UN observer, reported that looting was being conducted in a systematic manner by the army, carrying off furniture, clothes and anything useful for the new Jewish immigrants and also part of “a Jewish plan to prevent the return of the refugees”. Lieutenant Petite also reported that the Jews had murdered 100 Arab civilians in Acre, particularly those who refused to leave.
More horrors have been reported by de Meuron. He spoke of “a reign of terror” and the case of the rape of a girl by several soldiers and killing her father. He also wrote that all male civilians were taken to concentration camps and considered “prisoners of war” although they were not soldiers. This left many women and children homeless, without protection, subject to many acts of violence. He also notes the absence of water and electricity. He demanded from the Zionists a list of civilians detained as “prisoners of war”, demanded to know their whereabouts and permission to visit them. More importantly he asked that Acre be placed under ICRC protection and care. Anyone who reads the familiar dry and matter-of-fact language of ICRC would not fail to notice the tone of abhorrence of Zionist actions in de Meuron reports from Acre.
This episode, which started with poisoning Acre water supply and ended with the collapse of the city, the depopulation of its inhabitants, and its occupation by the Jews, whetted their appetite to try this crime again.
Two weeks later, after their “success” in Acre, the Zionists struck again. This time in Gaza, where hundreds of thousands of refugees had gathered after their villages in southern Palestine were occupied. The end however was different.
The following cable was sent from the commander of the Egyptian Forces in Palestine to General Headquarters in Cairo:
In Ben Gurion’s War Diary, the following entry is found on 27 May 1948:
[Chief of Staff Yigel Yadin] picked up a cable from Gaza saying they captured Jews carrying malaria germs and gave instructions not to drink water”. This is typical of Ben Gurion’s oblique writing of history. He was fully aware of the weight of history when such crimes are discovered. Nuremberg trials were held only three years before. More on the background of this cable was given in Yeruham Cohen’s book, In Daylight and Night Darkness, Tel Aviv, 1969, pp66-68 (in Hebrew).
The criminals were executed three months later. On 22 July 1948, the [Palestinian] Higher Arab Committee (AHC) submitted a 13-page report to the United Nations accusing the Jews of using “inhuman” weapons and waging a genocide war against the Arabs through the use of bacteria and germs, developed in specially-built laboratories. The report also accuses the Jews (the word Israel was not used) of spreading cholera in Egypt and Syria in 1947/48. The story was picked up by the award-winning journalist, Thomas J Hamilton of the New York Times and published on 24 July 1948. The story now has a new twist–adding Egypt and Syria to the Jewish field of operations.
CHOLERA IN EGYPT AND SYRIA:
The summer of 1947 was hot with diplomatic activity. The United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was busy touring Palestine and Arab countries in order to propose the partition of Palestine such that the new Jewish immigrants to Palestine, who controlled only six per cent of Palestine under the British Mandate, be given a big chunk of Palestine (turned out to be 54 per cent) in order to establish a foreign state in the midst of Arab land.
The Arabs, still under the tutelage of Britain, were debating how to resist the Western-supported scheme to take away their land. The forces to reckon with were neighbouring countries with common borders with Palestine. Lebanon was weak. Trans-Jordan was still controlled directly by the British and King Abdullah was conciliatory to the Jews. This left Egypt, the stronger Arab country and Syria, recently freed from the clutches of the French Mandate. Syria was the centre of Arab resistance to the foreign occupation of Palestine. Training centres were established in Qatana to prepare Arab volunteers to enter Palestine under the banner of “The Arab Rescue Army”. Egypt and Palestine were thus the most important targets.
In his 220-page continually updated report, entitled: Bioterrorism and Biocrimes: The Illicit Use of Biological Agents since 1900, dated February 2001, Dr W Seth Carus of the Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defence University, Washington, DC, lists the following subtitle, p.87: Case 1947-01: “Zionist” Terrorists 1947-1948.
Under this section, he mentions that the cholera outbreaks in Syria and Egypt received extensive attention in the international press. The first report about the cholera in Egypt was published in the Times of London on 26 September, 1947, p4. By the time the final cases appeared in January 1948, 10,262 people died.
He also states that the outbreak in Syria is much smaller. It was limited to two towns, about 60 kilometres south of Damascus, i.e. close to Palestine border. The first report appeared in the New York Times on 22 December, 1947, p5.
The Syrian army formed a cordon sanitaire and the casualties were limited to 44, including 18 deaths. Soon after, the Beirut French-language newspaper, Orient, reported that several Zionist agents, who employed cholera to disrupt the mobilisation of the volunteers’ army, were arrested. Their destiny is unknown.
These incidents, together with Gaza poisoning, Carus states, were described in the AHC complaint to the UN and quotes the report in saying that:
Carus adds information from other sources about the Gaza poisoning. Rachel Katzman, Horeen’s sister, Carus stated, said: “I met one of [my brother’s] commanders in a lecture in Jerusalem. I asked him whether my brother had really attempted to poison wells. ‘These were the weapons we had’, he said, ‘and that’s that.'”
Carus also adds another source about Acre poisoning: This source sates, “This account also claims that the Israelis poisoned the water supply of the Arab town of Acre, causing a major outbreak, and other Arab villages to prevent the villagers from returning, citing military historian Uri Milstein as a source” [Wendy Barnaby, The Plague Makers: The Secret World of Biological Warfare, London, Vision Paperbacks, 1997, pp114-116].
The writer has obtained a copy of an e-mail in which an Israeli peace activist asked Uri Milstein about Acre poisoning story. Milstein, the military historian, is described in the e-mail as “very knowledgeable, intelligent, courageous, original, honest”–although his views belong to the Israeli far-right (!). Milstein replied:
HOW DID BEN GURION START ALL THIS?
On the fourth of March 1948, Ben Gurion wrote a letter to Ehud Avriel, one of the Jewish Agency operatives in Europe, ordering him to recruit East European Jewish scientists who could “either increase [our] capacity to kill masses or to cure masses; both are important”. This truncated quotation is given by Avner Cohen who cited an author in Ben Gurion Research Centre at Sdeh Boker.
To understand the meaning of this quotation we must recall Ben Gurion’s doctrine: the destruction of the Palestinian Society in Palestine is a necessary condition for the establishment of the state of Israel on its ruins. As a corollary to this doctrine, ethnic cleansing became an integral part of Zionism. If Palestinians cannot be removed by massacres and expulsion, they shall be removed by “extermination”. Such words were specifically used in AHC letter mentioned above. The significance of this word is that it was rarely used by Arabs regarding their fate. Europe’s horrors were either remote or not widely known then.
The caveat by Ben Gurion as “to cure the masses” is yet another twist by Ben Gurion with an eye on history. For it is inconceivable that the Arabs have the ability or the will in 1948 to cause “mass killing” of the Jews using biological weapons. As it happened, Ben Gurion was the first to use such weapons. His legacy, much more refined and expanded, remains true till today.
Avner Cohen, a senior fellow at the Center for International and Security Studies, and the Program on Security and Disarmaments at the University of Maryland, wrote a comprehensive paper on Israel’s chemical and biological weapons, which was published in the Non-Proliferation Review, Autumn 2001. Notwithstanding his background, which furnishes a sympathetic understanding of Israel’s motives, his paper traces in 50 pages of detail, from open sources and few interviews, the establishment and development of Israel’s centre for biological terrorism.
Thrusting Israel in the heart of the Arab world, Ben Gurion was determined to achieve this extraordinary objective against all odds. “We are inferior to other peoples in our number, but no other people is superior to us in intellectual prowess”, Ben Gurion remarked.
In the 1940s, he gathered around him Ernst David Bergmann, Avraham Marcus (Marek) Klingberg (from the Red Army) and the brothers Aharon and Ephraim Katachalsky (Katzir)–all experts in microbiology. They formed the nucleus of the Science Corps in the Haganah during the British Mandate. Ephraim Katachalsky was named commander of this new unit, renamed HEMED, in May 1948. A dispute arose between Chaim Weizmann who wished to establish a scientific institute for “clean” science, while Ben Gurion insisted on building a “dirty” centre for biological weapons. Both got their wishes realised. Weizmann Institute for scientific research was built in Rehovot. A new unit within HEMED, devoted to biological weapons and named HEMED BEIT, was formed as a branch of the Israeli Army. Its head was Alexander Keynan, a microbiologist from the medical school at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
With the depopulation of 530 Palestinian towns and villages in Al-Nakba of 1948, many buildings and homes became vacant and over half of the Jewish immigrants in the 1950s were housed in them. The Chief of Staff Yigal Yadin selected a home for the new biological weapons development unit in a mansion located within a large orange grove west of Nes Ziona. This unit, publicly known as Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR), is still there today. The building was expanded, surrounded by a three metre wall, movement sensors and watch towers.
While IIBR represents the front of a scientific institution, producing a “clean” papers and receiving invitations to scientific conferences, the real biological weapons developed is carried within IIBR in a highly classified centre (Machon 2, one of four) funded and controlled directly by the Ministry of Defence.
IIBR Web site states that the institute’s staff comprises 300 employees, 120 of them PhD holders, in addition to 100 certified technicians. But these figures are misleading because there are many other scientists who hold positions in microbiology departments in faculties of medicine in Tel Aviv University and the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
Ephraim Katzir was rewarded for his service to the state by being elected as president of Israel in 1973. Aharon Katzir was killed in the Japanese attack on Lydda airport on 30 May, 1972.
Soon after the poisoning of Acre and Gaza, Ben Gurion launched a crash project to develop “a cheap non-conventional capability” in 1955. Why the rush? As Cohen reports, Munya Mardor, the founder of Israel’s Weapons Development Authority (RAFAEL), says that Ben Gurion was “evidently concerned that we would not meet the deadline he had set, worrying that the enemy would have such capability and we would have nothing to deter or retaliate”. It turned out that the rush was to meet the deadline for the Suez Tripartite Aggression of 1956. Ben Gurion was prepared to bomb Egypt with biological weapons if his campaign failed. As if that was not enough, Israel signed an agreement with France to build a nuclear programme in the same year. Ben Gurion’s emissary to France was none other than the peace-loving diplomat Shimon Pensky (Perez).
Anver Cohen says that the location of IIBR is classified and not shown on maps or aerial photographs. It is still possible, however, to determine its location with accuracy.
WHERE IS IIBR?
In the 1930s, the road from Ramleh to Nabi Rubin, a popular religious site visited annually, passes through Wadi Hunein, a good sandy soil with spots of marshes. The wealthy Al-Taji Al-Farouki family from Ramleh purchased large tracts of this land and developed it into successful citrus groves which exported hundreds of thousands of Jaffa orange boxes to Europe. Shukri Al-Taji built for himself a beautiful mansion–a two-storey rectangular building on top of a hill, on a plot of land, 134,029 m2 in area. The plot number is 549/32 and the property deed is entered in the Land Registry under E42/260 on 16 March 1932. He also built a mosque on the asphalt road from Jaffa to Qubeiba. On another hill, one kilometre to the west, his cousin Abdel-Rahman Hamed Al-Taji built a house which consists of several buildings. The mansions in the midst of vast orange groves depicted an idyllic scene in quiet surroundings.
This is the location chosen by Yigal Yadin for his biological weapons research. Shukri Al Taji mansion became the home of IIBR. The IIBR Web site (www.iibr.gov.il) proudly shows on the opening page its building entrance, which is nothing but Shukri’s mansion with its arched façade and tall lush trees. Shukri died broken hearted in Cairo some ten years later.
If you drive from Nes Ziona going west on road 4303, then turn left at road 42 heading south, you will find IIBR at your right at a distance of 500 metres. The coordinates of IIBR are:
Other Al-Taji buildings were expropriated and used. The mosque is transformed into a synagogue, named “gulat Israel”. Abdel-Rahman’s house became a mental hospital.
CHASING THE CULPRITS:
Sara Leibovitz-Dar is a persistent investigative journalist. The trauma experienced by her parents in their native Lithuania left an indelible mark on her. She abhorred injustice and, particularly, the meek acceptance of it. She investigated the Gaza and Acre poisoning and shooting down of the civilian Libyan aircraft. The Israeli military historian, Uri Milstein, identified for her the names of the officers responsible for biological crimes.
In 1993, Sara tried to interview the commander who was responsible for Acre poisoning. He refused to talk. “Why do you look for troubles that took place 45 years ago?” he asked. “I know nothing about this. What would you gain by publishing?”
Again, Sara interviewed the officer responsible for Gaza poisoning. He refused to respond, “You will not get answers on these questions. Not from me and not from anyone”. Sara was persistent. She asked Colonel Shlomo Gur, former HEMED chief, whether he was aware of the secret operations in 1948. “We heard about the typhoid epidemics in Acre and about the Gaza operations. There were many rumours but I did not know whether they were true or not”, he responded.
Sara published her findings in Hadashot under the title “Microbes in State Service”, on 13 August, 1993, pp6-10. Sara, who now moved to Ha’aretz, concluded with the following comment,
“What was done then with deep conviction and zealotry is now concealed with shame”. True to the Israeli tradition, Sara declined twice to respond by e-mail to an enquiry from the writer.
Not all are afraid to talk. Naeim Giladi is an Iraqi Jew who was lured to Israel by Mossad agents in the early 1950s. Working with the zealotry and dedication of a new Zionist, he soon found out that within the Ashkenazi establishment “there was not much opportunity for those of us who were second class citizens”, he told the editor of The Link in New York where he immigrated after leaving Israel. “I began to find out about the barbaric methods to rid the fledgling state of as many Palestinians as possible. The world recoils today at the thought of bacteriological warfare, but Israel was probably the first to actually use it in the Middle East. Jewish forces would empty Arab villages of their population often by threats, sometimes by gunning down a half-dozen young men so that the Arabs could not return. The Israelis put typhus and dysentery bacteria in the water wells to prevent the refugees from returning”. [The Link, Vol. 31 Issue 2, April-May 1998].
Another witness who spoke, former Mossad agent, Victor Ostrovsky, claims that lethal tests have been performed on Arab prisoners inside the IIBR compound.
THE DUTCH INVESTIGATION:
On 4 October, 1992 at 6.21pm, El Al Flight 1862 left Amsterdam’s Schiphol airport on route to Tel Aviv, carrying three crewmen, one passenger and 114 tons of freight. Seven minutes later, it crashed in a high-rise apartment complex in Bijlmer. El Al Flight 1862 became the worst air disaster in Dutch history, killing at least 47 (the actual number is unknown because many victims were immigrants) and destroyed the health of 3000 Dutch residents. Cases of mysterious illnesses, rashes, difficulty in breathing, nervous disorders and cancer began to sprout in that neighbourhood and beyond.
The Dutch government, in collusion with Israel, lied to its citizens saying the plane was carrying perfumes and flowers. Some flowers! It took the energetic and persistent science editor in the Dutch daily NRC Handelsblad, Karel Knip, several years to discover the facts. Knip published on 27 November 1999 the most detailed and factual published investigation about the workings of biological terrorism housed in IIBR.
First he found out that the plane was carrying 50 gallons, among other things, of DMMP a substance used to make a quarter ton of the deadly nerve gas Sarin, 20 times as lethal as cyanide. It was carrying a shipment from Solkatronic Chemicals of Morrisville, Pennsylvania to IIBR in Israel, under a US Department of Commerce licence. This is contrary to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) to which the US, but not Israel, is party.
With dogged determination, Knip reviewed the scientific literature produced by IIBR and the microbiology departments of the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Tel Aviv and the Hebrew University since 1950. He was able to identify 140 scientists involved in biological weapons (BW) research. The number could be more as scientists have dual positions or they move around. Many take their sabbaticals invariably in the United States. There are strong links with Walter Reed Army Institute, the Uniformed Services University, the American Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Center in Edgewood and the University of Utah.
Remarkably, Knip was able to identify three categories of IIBR production: diseases, toxins and convulsants, and their development in each decade of the five past decades. (See table)
The research moved from virus and bacteria to toxins because they are many times more poisonous. Nerve gases known as Tabun, Soman, Sarin, VX, Cyclo-Sarin, RVX and Amiton are all deadly gases and function in the same way.
Knip went further. He sought the assistance of experts in this field such as Professor Julian Perry Robinson, University of Sussex, Brighton, Dr Jean Pascal Zanders of SIPRI, Stockholm and Professor Malcolm Dando, University of Bradford. They guided his research and explained his findings.
Knip also discovered close cooperation between IIBR and the British-American BW programme. This programme deals with viruses and bacteria spread by rodents and insects and covers smallpox, fungal diseases and Legionnaires disease. It is to be noted that there was a breakout of this disease in Philadelphia some years ago, and, surprisingly, in an Eilat hotel in mid–January this year.
The interest in the plant poison Elate-Ricin is confined to very few institutions beside IIBR. It will be recalled that amateur biologists were arrested in UK in January attempting to prepare Ricin.
The novel and dangerous trend in BW research in IIBR is the development of incapacitants which paralyse, disorient, cause uncontrollable movements and severe pain in the stomach. Most of these incapacitants have antidotes to repair the damage done. These incapacitants have been and are used against the Palestinians in the Intifada.
There is also extensive collaboration on BW research with Germany and Holland. That is probably the reason for the Dutch official silence over the deadly crash over Amsterdam.
The cooperation with the US is quite open. The Congress “Joint Medical, Biological and Nuclear Defence Research Programs” openly lists cooperation with Israel on nerve agents and convulsants under the guise of finding antidotes. It is plainly simple to realise that in order to develop the antidote it is necessary to identify the poison itself. Dr Avigdor Shafferman, IIBR director, is a frequent contributor to this programme. (see http://www.acq.osd.mil/cp/nbc98/annexd.pdf)–Annex D.
The Preparatory Commission for the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague turns a blind eye to the Israeli criminal activities. Ironically, Israeli researchers guide OPCW on methods to detect Chemical Weapons. Israeli researchers R Barak, A Lorber and Z Boger of IIBR, CHEMO Solutions and Rotem Industries respectively propose methods to detect chemical warfare agents. No international body seems to be willing to apply these methods on Israel.
The mechanism to do this monitoring is available. The American Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center has the wherewithal to inspect suspect laboratories. But it is unlikely to see a team of inspectors headed by an American Blix searching the secret chambers of IIBR.
This may, however, not apply to conscientious scientists. Professor Keith Yamamoto, of the University of California and Dr Jonathan King of MIT criticised the American BW research and showed that attempting to modify toxins (as IIBR does) can hardly be considered “defensive” research. But Israel’s turn in such criticism seems far-off at present.
THE PALESTINIAN VICTIMS:
The biological crimes perpetrated against the Palestinians in Acre and Gaza in 1948 are still being enacted today.
In 1997, Mossad agents tried to assassinate Khaled Mish’al, Hamas Political Bureau’s director in Amman. King Hussein was furious at the blatant violation of Jordan’s sovereignty and of the Peace Treaty with Israel. As the attempt failed, thanks to Mish’al’s bodyguard, Israel sent a lady doctor with the antidote. The toxin used is likely to be SEB applied through a special gun which has a range of 50 metres. and could inject the toxin in the neck.
The stories about nerve gas applied against school children abound. So are the cases in which CBW are used. Neil Sammonds lists these cases:
* Chemical defoliants against Palestinian crops in Ain Al-Beida in 1968, Aqraba in 1972, Mejdel Beni Fadil in 1978 and Negev in 2002.
* Chemical Weapons, including hydrogen cyanide, nerve gas and phosphorous shells in the 1982 war on Lebanon.
* Lethal gas against Palestinian and Lebanese prisoners.
But the case which was widely publicised all over the world and fully documented by several international NGOs is the application of incapacitants, particularly in Khan Younis, in February 2001. The pictures of victims twisting with severe pain and uncontrollable convulsions were splashed on TV screens everywhere.
James Brooks of “Just Peace in Palestine/Israel” gave a detailed account of this BW attack on civilians day by day as it happened. First, the victims thought it was tear gas. It had a faint odour like mint. It smelled “like sugar”, one victim reported. It changed colour “like a rainbow”. Fifteen minutes later, the victim felt that his “stomach was torn apart, with burning sensation in [his] chest, could not breathe”. Soon convulsions started. The victim would jump up and down, left and right, thrashing limbs around, with a kind of hysteria. Some victims were unconscious. The victim would vomit incessantly and then pain would return. This would go on for days or, for some, weeks.
In addition to the numerous press and human rights reports, convulsing poison gas victims in Khan Younis were filmed by the American filmmaker James Longley, in a documentary that “pushes the viewer headlong into the tumult of the Israeli-occupied Gaza”. Longley compiled a 43-page document of interviews with 19 gas victims, their relatives, nurses and doctors.
These devilish incapacitants drew the protest of some NGOs but little else. No international investigation or censureship of any kind, even though this was repeatedly used in March in Al-Birch, Nablus and West Bank and yet again in Gaza later that month.
Just the contrary. There was a wide-spread Zionist-orchestrated condemnation and disapproval when, in November 1999, Suha Arafat, the president’s wife, charged the Israelis with the use of “poison gas” in the presence of the aspiring politician Hillary Clinton. The height of hypocrisy and cynicism was attained when the incensed Israeli authorities declared that Suha’s factual statement is “a violation of the peace process”!
There are as yet unseen and long-term effects of toxins and incapacitants. On 3 February, 2003, Dr Khamis Al-Najjar, director of Cancer Research Centre of the Ministry of Health in Ramallah reported an alarming increase in cancer cases, especially among women and children. The report covers the period 1995-2000 and shows 3646 cases, with more than half among females. The cases in Gaza are more than the West Bank. The report, citing the rate of increase, predicts that cases will triple in the near future. Taking note of the Israelis’ paranoia about Palestinian demography and judging by their previous record, it is possible that the accumulative effect of the Israeli application of toxins and incapacitants has produced the increased incidence of cancer cases. A similar study is yet to be made on fetus and newborn babies.
WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?
Israel has signed but not ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention and is not a party to the Biological Weapons Convention. Israel does not recognise the application of the Fourth Geneva Convention on the Occupied Palestinian Territories of the West Bank and Gaza, as the rest of the world does. This is not surprising. Israel violates every rule in the book.
Article-147 of the Geneva Convention stipulates that to “willingly cause [civilians] great suffering or serious injury to body or health” is a “grave breach”, which, according to Article-146, requires all High Contracting Parties to “search for persons alleged to have committed or to have ordered to commit such grave breaches” and must “bring such person regardless of their nationality before their own courts”. If this is applied, Sharon and his officers will stand behind bars in a Belgian court for a long time.
There is a plethora of conventions which Israel constantly violated, starting with Geneva Protocol of 1925 on Poisonous Gas to the 1993 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons.
With this background, it seems a mockery of justice to despatch hundreds of inspectors to destroyed workshops and private homes in Iraq, while huge tons of weapons of mass destruction are staring them in the eye in Israel. Perhaps the 10 million people in 600 cities around the world who demonstrated against the war on Iraq on 15 and 16 February were trying to point out this irony in refusing this war. Some placards said so in clear terms.
Perhaps the domestic voice in Israel may be listened to more attentively. The Mayor of Nes Ziona, located a mere 10 kilometres away from Tel Aviv centre, complained that the proximity of IIBR to his city poses a great danger to the population, in case of accident. He is right. The Science Committee in the Knesset reported 22 casualties including three fatal cases in the last 15 years. But these were mild cases.
What would be the situation if a big accident happens on a windy day, causing explosion of tons of toxics and its evaporation in the sky, in a congested neighbourhood, where three million people live in an area of barely 1,000 sq. kms, that is 35×35 km? Ben Gurion, while cooking his evil plans to “exterminate” the Arabs, did not envisage this scenario in his wildest dreams.
* The writer is president of the Palestine Land Society, London.
Yersinia pestis (plague)
West Nile virus
African Swine fever